The Complete Book of Galatians:


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This is a work that seeks to give the reader some involvement in the process of translating by presenting a range of semantic meanings of significant Greek words in the midst of the text.

In each passage, read the BLUE BOLD type first without the additional meanings.  Then read it with the other word meanings.  Prayerfully consider the possible meanings and the context and let the Holy Spirit give you understanding and revelation.







1.  Paul, one sent as a representative (emissary; envoy) – not with a commission from people, nor through a human, but rather through Jesus Christ, as well as Father God (or: through Jesus, [the] Anointed One, and God [the] Father), the One arousing and raising Him forth from out of the midst of dead folks –

2.  and all the brothers (= fellow believers) together with me, to the called-out folks (or: to the called-out communities and gatherings; to the summoned-forth congregations of people) of [the province of] Galatia:


3.  In, for and with you folks [are] (or: To you people [be]) grace and joyous favor, as well as peace (= shalom), from God, our Father and Owner, Jesus Christ (or: from our Father God, even [the] Lord, Jesus Christ; or: from God our Father, and [the] Master, Jesus [the] Anointed)

4.  – the One at one point giving Himself, over [the situation of] (or: on behalf of; for the sake of; [p46, Aleph*, A, D & other MSS read: concerning]) our failures (situations and occasions of falling short or to the side of the target; deviations; mistakes; errors; sins) so that He could carry us out from the midst of the present misery-gushing and worthless age

(or: bear us forth from the indefinite period of time – characterized by toil, grievous plights and bad situations – having taken a stand in [our] midst; or: extricate us from the space of time having been inserted and now standing in union with base qualities), corresponding to (or: down from; in accord with; in line with; in the sphere and to the level of) the effect of the will (or: intent; purpose; design) of our God and Father,

5.  in Whom [is] the glory (or: by Whom [is] the manifestation which calls forth praise; for Whom [is] the reputation; with Whom [comes] an appearance which creates and effects opinions in regard to the whole of human experience) on into the indefinite times of the ages (or: into the [crowning and most significant] eons of the eons).  It is so! (Count on it; Amen!)


6.  I am constantly amazed (or: I continue filled with wonder) that you folks are so quickly being progressively transplanted (or, as a middle voice: are thus now quickly transferring yourselves or changing your stand) from the One (or: that [message]) calling you people, within Christ's grace (or: in [the] favor of the Anointed One), on into a different sort of “message of goodness” (unto a different evangel, “good news,” or gospel; = into an imitation and alternative message of goodness, ease or well-being) – which is NOT "another" one of the same kind (= not just another version)!

7.  But instead that there are certain folks – the ones constantly agitating (stirring up; disturbing) you folks – even repeatedly wanting (or: intending) to alter and distort (turn so as to change; pervert) Christ's message of goodness, ease and well-being (or: the good news which is the Anointed One; or: the evangel about and from the [Messiah]).


8.  However, even if we – or an agent from the atmosphere or sky (or: a messenger from out of the midst of heaven)! – should ever bring or announce something as "good news" (as the message of goodness; as being the evangel or gospel) to you folks which is to the side of that which we announce (or: is parallel to what we announced) to you folks in the message of goodness, ease and well-being, let it be placed on the altar before the Lord (set up as a result of a divine offering [i.e., to see if it is "accepted" by God, or "rejected," as Cain's was]; or, possibly: cursed).

9.  So as we have said before (or: = above [in vs. 8]), and I am right now presently saying again, if anyone is habitually announcing (proclaiming) as "good news" that which is to the side of that which you receive (or: took to your side), let it be placed on the altar before God (set up as a result of a divine offering [to see if it's acceptable]; or, possibly: cursed).


10.  Come now, am I at the present moment habitually appealing to humans, or God? (or: am I right now constantly trying to convince and persuade mankind, or God ?)  Or, am I repeatedly seeking to keep on pleasing and accommodating people (humans)?  If I had been still continuing to please and accommodate people (mankind), I would not have been being Christ's slave.

11.  You see, [other MSS: Now] I am habitually making it intimately known to you folks by experience, brothers: that the message of goodness and well-being – the one being announced and proclaimed as "good" news by (or: under) me – is not down from or according to a person (or: is not corresponding to something human; is not on the level of or in the sphere of humanity),

12.  for I myself neither received it to my side from a human (or: from beside a person), nor was I taught [it], but to the contrary, [it came] through an unveiling of Jesus Christ (or: through an uncovering pertaining to Jesus [the Messiah]; through a revelation from Jesus Christ; by means of a disclosure which is [the] Anointed Jesus).


13.  For you hear (or: heard) about my former way of life (one-time conduct and behavior) within the traditional Jewish culture and religion (Judaism), that corresponding to excessive action (a throwing over and casting beyond) I was hastening in hostile pursuit, continuing to persecute God's called-out group of people (the community whose source is God; the ecclesia pertaining to God), and I kept on trying to lay it waste (or: continued sacking and devastating it).

14.  And so I was progressively cutting forward and kept on advancing within Judaism (the culture and religion of the Jews) over and above many contemporaries (folks of the same age) within my race, being inherently more exceedingly zealous pertaining to the traditions of my fathers (or: for the things handed over, given alongside or delivered which originated with my ancestors).


15.  Yet when God – the One marking off boundaries to separate and sever me from out of my mother's womb (or: cavity; [comment: a figure of the religion of the Jews]), and calling [me] through His grace and favor – thought well (or: delights and takes pleasure)

16.  to unveil (reveal; uncover; disclose) His Son within the midst of me (or: in union with me), to the end that I in myself (or: for myself; by myself; of myself) would announce and proclaim the message of goodness, [which is] Him, within the ethnic multitudes (or: may bring and tell the message of ease and well-being: Him [now] among the nations), I did not immediately place myself back toward flesh and blood (= present my cause up for the approval of other people; consult anyone; seek communication or advice from my race, kin or religion),

17.  neither did I go up into Jerusalem, toward those [who were] people sent off (= to face and be with the commissioned representatives) previous to me, but rather, I went off into Arabia, then later I again returned into Damascus.


18.  Later on, after three years, I went up into Jerusalem to become acquainted with (or: to inquire of, examine and get information from) Cephas [some MSS: Peter] while visiting him and relating my story to him, and then stayed on with him for fifteen days.

19.  Yet a different one of (or: another one from) those sent with commissions (the envoys; the representatives) I did not see, except Jacob (= James), the Lord's brother.

20.  Now what I am presently writing to you folks (or: for you folks), consider!  In God's sight, I am not lying!


21.  Later, I came into the slopes of the regions of Syria and Cilicia,

22.  yet I was continuing being unknown by personal experience – by face – to the called-out groups (the summoned-forth communities) within Christ, of the Judean area.

23.  Indeed, they were only hearing from time to time that, "The one once habitually pursuing and persecuting us is now habitually announcing as good news the Faithful One (or: the fidelity and allegiance; or: the faith, trust and belief) which once he kept on laying waste and devastating."

24.  And in me [i.e., in my case or situation] they kept on glorifying God (or: began giving credit to God and expanding His reputation; or: So they began presuming, imagining and then continued regarding God [as being] within the midst of, and in union with, me).




1.  Later, after a period of fourteen years, I again walked up into Jerusalem with Barnabas, taking Titus, also, along with me.

2.  Now I walked up (or: made the ascent) [there] corresponding to and as directed by (or: in accord with and in the sphere of; down from and following the bidding of), an unveiling (or: a disclosure; a revelation), and I put up to them (set back again for them; = submitted to them) the message of goodness, ease and well-being, which I am habitually proclaiming as a public message within the multitudes (or: among the nations and ethnic groups – non-Jews; Gentiles) – yet [I did so] privately, to those continuing to be disposed to thinking and imagination (or: for those being supposed to continue with a reputation; or: to ones yet forming opinions), lest somehow I am progressively rushing forward and running, or had run, into emptiness (or: for an empty thing; into something without content; = to no purpose; or: = in vain).

3.  However, not even Titus – the one with me – was compelled or even strongly urged to be circumcised, although being a Greek!

4.  Yet, through the led-in-at-the-side (or: smuggled-in) false brothers (or: = deceitful or lying fellow believers; or: = imitation members) – folks who entered alongside to spy out (to attentively look down and around, observe and take note of) our freedom which we continuously possess (constantly have and hold) within Christ Jesus, to the end that they will utterly enslave us (or: with a purpose that they shall bring us down into slavery)

5.  to whom (or: for whom), now, we did (or: do) not for even an hour give place to, make a way for, or simulate by humble alignment, subordination, submission or subjection, so that the reality (the Truth) of the message of goodness may abide throughout (or: thoroughly remain; fully dwell; be permanent in continuing) focused toward, and be face to face with, you folks!


6.  Now from those continuing to be disposed to thinking and imagination (or: from those being supposed to continue with a reputation; or: from the folks yet forming opinions) – whatever sort of men they formerly (or: once) were being matters nothing (makes no difference; carries nothing through) to me (or: for me) [because] God is not in the habit of receiving a person's face (= taking people at face value; or: responding to man's outward appearance or presentation). So you see, those continuing to be disposed to thinking and imagination (or: those being supposed to continue with a reputation; those yet forming opinions) of themselves put nothing new forward for me (or: from themselves placed forward [as a suggestion] nothing back in me; = contributed or added nothing to me).

7.  But rather, on the contrary, seeing that I had been persuaded by and convinced of (or: perceiving that I had been entrusted with) the message of goodness, ease and well-being concerning (or: with reference to; in consideration of; pertaining to; separated for; belonging to; having characteristics and qualities suited to; for the context of; relative to; as it relates to) the Uncircumcision (= those not of the Jewish religion, being from pagan religions or Hellenistic culture), correspondingly as Peter, concerning (or: with reference to; in consideration of; pertaining to; separated for; belonging to; having characteristics and qualities suited to; for the context of; relative to; as it relates to) the Circumcision (= the Jews, or those of the Jewish religion and culture)

8.  for you see, the One working within (being active in; operating within; energizing) Peter unto a sending for a mission concerning (in reference to; or: which is) the Circumcision, also by me inwardly works (energizes; is inwardly active and operative) unto the multitudes (into the midst of the nations – the non-Jewish ethnic groups; the Gentiles)

9.  then Jacob (or: James), Cephas and John – those continuing to be disposed to thinking and imagination (or: those yet forming opinions) and seeming, by reputation, to be pillars (or: supportive columns [note: a figure of a living temple]) – recognizing (or: coming to know) by intimate experience the grace and favor being given by me (or: to me; in me; for me), gave to me and to Barnabas [the] right [hands] of common partnership, from common participation, in regard to common existence/situation and which signified equal belonging in fellowship, community and sharing, to the end that we [would continue] into the nations (multitudes; ethnic groups; Gentiles; non-Jews) – yet they, into the Circumcision –

10.  [the] only [concern being] that we would habitually be mindful of the poor ones (or: should keep on remembering the destitute folks), which very thing, also, I was eager and made every effort to do.


11.  Now when Cephas came into Antioch, I stood in opposition to him in relation to the appearance of the external situation (or: I resisted him face to face; or: I stood face to face with him, on his behalf), because he was continuing in a state of having been discovered to be down [over an issue] (or: he was now one having condemned himself from a negative experience; or: was being found at fault),

12.  for you see, prior to the coming of some from Jacob (or: James), he had been habitually eating together with those of the multitudes (the nations; the non-Jewish ethnic groups; the Gentiles).  Yet when they came, he began steadily withdrawing, and continued separating by marking off boundaries for himself, constantly fearing those from among [the] Circumcision (= the Jewish culture and religion).

13.  And so the rest of the Jews also, as a group, came under the decision to separate with (or: to) him, so that even Barnabas was jointly brought along (or: led away together) by their [Law]-based separation (or: their perverse judgment which ended in a base decision; or: = legalistic behavior).

14.  But then, when I saw that they did not continue walking straight (having a straight foot[print]; walking an upright course) toward the Truth (or: face to face with the reality) of message of goodness and ease, I said to Cephas, in front of everyone (or: all), "If you, being inherently a Jew, are now habitually living as the ethnic multitudes (like the nations; as a Gentile), and not like a Jew, how is it [that] you are continuing to compel (to strongly urge) the multitudes (the nations; the non-Jewish ethnic groups; the Gentiles) to be now Judaizing (progressively living according to Jewish custom and religion)?


15.  We – Jews by (or: in) nature, and not outcasts (ones who miss the target or deviate from the goal; failures; sinners) from out of the multitudes (herds; nations; ethnic groups; Gentiles)

16.  having seen and thus knowing that humanity (or: mankind; or: a person) is not normally being eschatologically liberated or put in right relationship

(made fair and equitable; made free from guilt and set into the Way pointed out; rightwised and made to be a just one; = being presently brought into covenant) from out of works of Law (or: forth from a law's deeds or actions from custom), except through Jesus Christ's faithfulness (or: faith and trust that belongs to and originates in Christ Jesus), even we ourselves believe and place trust – into Christ Jesus – that we should and would be delivered and can be put in right relationships of the Way pointed out

            (or: and so we suddenly trusted and were at once loyal unto Jesus [the] Anointed One, to the end that we would be liberated and made just-fair-equitable, be released from feelings of guilt, be rightwised and placed into new covenant membership) from out of the midst of Christ's faithfulness, as a source and sphere (or: forth from trust and conviction, which are Christ), – NOT from out of the midst of works of Law, as a source and sphere, because from out of the midst of works of Law (or: so that, forth from a law's deeds or actions corresponding to custom, or from out of works which comprise [the] Law) "no flesh (= person or human) at all will proceed being delivered or continue being put in right relationship

(liberated and made to be just, fair and equitable; freed from guilt; rightwised or turned in the right direction from being placed into the Way pointed out; = put in covenant)." [Ps. 143:2]


17.  Now since (or: if) we, in habitually seeking to be delivered and put in right relationship (placed into the Way pointed out; made to be just, fair and turned aright; also = made to be participants in the covenant; or: seeking to be freed from guilt) within Christ (or: in union with [the] Anointed One [= the Messiah]), were ourselves also found to be failures (ones who miss the target; those who deviate; sinners; outcasts), [is] Christ, consequently, an attending servant of failure (sin's servant; a dispenser of error; a minister to the missing of the target)?  May it not happen (or: It cannot come to be; Certainly not)!

18.  For if I should continue building up again (or: would repeatedly reconstruct) these things which I loosed down and demolished, I myself continue standing together with a transgressor (or: I proceed to exhibit myself as one who steps out of the Way and to the side).

19.  You see, I myself through [the] Law died by [the] Law (or: to [the] Law; in [the] Law; with [the] Law), to the end that I could and would live by God, in God, for God, to God and with God!

20.  I was crucified together with Christ [= the Messiah], and thus it remains (or: I have been jointly put on the execution stake in [the] Anointed One, and continue in this state), yet I continue living!  [It is] no longer I, but it is Christ continuously living and alive within me! (or: No longer an "I" – now Christ constantly lives in the midst of, and in union with, me).  Now that which I, at the present moment, continue living within flesh (= a physical body), I am constantly living within [His] faithfulness – in and by that [faithfulness] which is the Son of God (or: in union with the trust and confidence that is from God’s Son [with other MSS: in the faith and fidelity belonging to God and Christ]), the One loving me and giving Himself over to another for the sake of me (or: even transmitting Himself, over my [situation and condition]; or: also passing Himself along for me).

21.  I make it no habit to displace (shove aside; upset; thus: reject; thwart; repudiate; nullify) God's grace and favor!  For if rightwising deliverance into justice, equity and freedom from guilt with right relationships within the Way pointed out (= transforming-inclusion into the new covenant) [is] through Law (= by legalism or religious works), then as a consequence Christ died as a mere gratuity (= for nothing; to no purpose).




1.  O senseless, unreflecting and foolish Galatians!  Who suddenly harmed you with malicious words, or bewitched you folks with the evil eye – before whose eyes Jesus Christ was graphically placarded (= as though portrayed in writing before your own eyes) one having been crucified on a stake?

2.  This only am I intending (wanting; purposing; willing) to learn from you people: Did you receive the Spirit (or: get the Breath-effect; take in hand the Attitude) forth from out of works of Law, or from out of a hearing of a report about faithfulness (= [the] faithful One)

(or: from the midst of faith's hearing; or: from a hearing of a proclamation that was characterized by [Christ’s] fidelity; or: out of a listening concerning trust that was loyalty)?

3.  Are you so senseless, unreflecting and foolish?  Being folks making a beginning inwardly by spirit (or: in breath-effect; by [the] Spirit; with [the] result of [the] Breath) are you folks now being progressively brought fully to the goal (being totally finished, perfected and brought to your destiny) by flesh (or, as a middle: are you now continuing to accomplish completeness in yourselves in, or with, flesh)?

[note: Paul is using the word “flesh” here as a figure for “works of Law” (vs.2, above), with its circumcision, animal sacrifices, etc.; for other religions it would refer to “religious works” of those particular systems (including Christianity, in the following centuries)]

4.  Did you folks experience or suffer so many things randomly, for no cause or purpose – if in reality [there] even [is] "for no cause," or "by random happenings"?


5.  The One, therefore, continuously furnishing and supplying to (or: for; in) you folks the Spirit (or: the spirit; the breath; or: = attitude and vitality), and constantly and effectively energizing, being active, working and producing abilities and powers within you people – [is its source] from out of works of Law, or out of a hearing of a report of faithfulness,

(or: The one, then, constantly supplying the Breath-effect for you folks, and repeatedly working powers among you – [does he do it] from our of deeds based on [the] Law [= Torah], or from out of faith's attentive listening,)

6.  just as Abraham, "was faithful to God (or: believed by God; trusts in, and with, God), and he is/was at once logically considered and viewed by Him [that he had come] into a right relationship (or: and it was counted for him into a rightwised, equitable and covenantal relationship with [God] which aligned with the Way [that God had] pointed out)"? [Gen. 15:6; cf Rom. 4:3ff]

7.  Be assured consequently, by your experiential knowledge and insight, (or, as an indicative: Surely you are coming to know) that the folks [springing] forth from out of the midst of faithfulness (or: whose source is faith, trust and confident loyalty), these are Abraham's sons!

8.  Now the Scripture – seeing before [as a picture] that God is now progressively liberating the nations into rightwised relationship (delivering the ethnic groups of non-Jews into the Way pointed out and freeing them from guilt) from out of faithfulness – announced to (or: for) Abraham beforehand the message of goodness, ease and well-being

(or: And further – the Scripture perceiving in advance and making provision that He is presently making the multitudes fair and equitable {or: = including the Gentiles in the covenant} from faith, trust, conviction and loyalty – God brought-before in Abraham the glad tidings of goodness {a gospel; an evangel}),

namely that,

"All the nations, ethnic groups and multitudes will continuously and progressively be inwardly blessed

(receive the inner Word of wellness; participate within the Good Word) in a union with you (or: within you; in you; or: = in relation to you; or: = as in your case)." [Gen. 12:3; 22:18]

9.  So then, those from out of faithfulness (or: = folks who are derived from [Christ’s] faith, trust and confidence and who come from the place of [His] loyal allegiance) are being constantly blessed (repeatedly given the Word of wellness; continuously made to participate in the Good Word) together with the full-of-faith and faithful Abraham (or: the trusting, believing, convinced and loyal Abraham).


10.  You see, however many people continue their existence from the midst of observances and works of Law (= Everyone who lives by deeds and actions based upon the Torah) are continuously under a curse (a negative, down-focused or adversarial prayer; an imprecation), for it has been and now stands written, namely that,

"A curse (or: an adversarial prayer; imprecation) [is settled] upon all (or: [is] added to    everyone) not constantly remaining within all the things having been and standing written within the scroll of the Law [= Torah], in order to do them." [Deut. 27:26]

11.  Now [the fact] that within [the] Law no one is in process of (or: in union with [the] Law or or custom is no one presently) being eschatologically delivered and rightwised (put in right relationship; made just, freed from guilt, or, placed within the Way pointed out which is covenant membership and life) at God's side (or: with God) [is] clearly visible and evident, because,

"the fair and equitable man (the One in right relationship within the Way pointed out; the Just One) will continue to live from out of faithfulness (or: the one [who is] just from out of trusting fidelity, and loyal conviction, will progressively live)," [Hab. 2:4]

12.  yet the Law is not (or: [Torah] does not have its existence) [springing] forth from out of faith and trust, but to the contrary,

"the one ‘doing and performing’ them shall be constantly living [his life] within them (or: will continue living, in union with these things)." [Lev. 18:5]

13.  Christ bought us [back] out (or: redeems and reclaims us out [of slavery] and liberates us) from the midst of the curse (or: adversarial prayer; imprecation) of and from the Law, while becoming (or: birthing Himself to be) a curse (or: accursed One; an [embodied] adversarial prayer) for our sakes (or: over our [situation]) – for it has been and now stands written:

"A curse (an adversarial prayer) [is settled] upon all (or: [is] added to everyone) continuing hanging upon a tree (or: wood; a stake or pole)" [Deut. 21:23, omitting the phrase “by God,” after the word “curse”]  

14.  to the end that the Good Word (the Blessing; the Word of wellness and goodness) pertaining to Abraham (belonging to and possessed by Abraham; whose intermediary source is Abraham) could within Jesus Christ suddenly birth Itself (or: may from Itself, within Christ Jesus, at once come into being [and be dispersed]) into the multitudes (the nations; the ethnic groups; the Gentiles), so that we [note: "we" = the new "one" mankind?] could receive the Spirit's promise through the Faithfulness [of Christ]

(or: to the end that we [all] may take in hand the Promise from the Breath-effect, through faith and trust; or: in order that we [Jew and Gentile] can lay hold of and receive the Promise – which is the Spirit – through that loyalty; [cf Isa. 44:3]).


15.  Brothers (= fellow believers; family), I am now speaking humanly (in accordance with and on the level of mankind; = with an illustration of common human practice).  Like with the situation of a human settled arrangement (or: will; contract; covenant; or: will and testament deed of gift): [when] existing as having been validated (authoritatively confirmed; legally ratified; publicly affirmed), no one is proceeding to displace it (to annul it; to set it aside) or modify it or add stipulations (super-add an injunction; add a codicil; introduce additions or arrangements throughout it).

16.  Now the promises were declared (said; spoken) to (or: for; in) Abraham, and to (or: for; in) his Seed (Descendant).  It (or: He) is not saying, "And to the seeds (descendants)," as upon many, but rather, as upon One, "And to, for and in your Seed," [Gen. 12:7; 13:15; etc.] Who exists being Christ (or: which is [the] Anointed One [= the Messiah]).


17.  Further, I am now saying and meaning this: the Law [= Torah], being that having come into existence after four hundred and thirty years, is not invalidating (depriving of authority; annulling) into the situation to idle-down (render ineffective, useless, unproductive or inoperative) the Promise – a settled arrangement (contract; covenant; will and testament deed of gift) existing as having been previously validated (confirmed; legally ratified) by, and under [the authority of], God!

18.  For if the inheritance (the possession and enjoyment of the distributed allotment) [is] from out of Law [= Torah], [it is] no longer from out of Promise.  Yet God has Himself graced [it] (has for Himself, in favor, freely granted [it]), so that it now stands as a favor of grace, to (or: for; in) Abraham through a Promise (or: because of a promise).


19.  Why, then, the Law [= Torah] of The Transgressions?  It was at one point set aiming at, and thus provided a view to, grace and favor [D, F, G & others read: It was appointed for (or: set {beside}) grace]

(or: Why, then, the Law?  It was placed close and applied {imposed; added} on behalf of the walks to the side of [the path]; or: What, therefore [is] the Law [= Torah]?  Something set, as a favor, face-to-face with the over-steppings and transgressions to the side of and beyond [the Way])

– being precisely arranged and thoroughly prescribed and mandated by injunction through means of agents (or: messengers; folks with the message) within the midst of [the] hand of a mediator (or: in an umpire's hand; within [the] hand of an arbitrator or an intermediary in a middle position) – as far as to where (or: until which place or time) the Seed would (or: should) come, to Whom, for Whom, with respect to Whom and by Whom the promise had been made (or: in Whom He had been promised).

20.  Now there is no mediator of one (= when one person is concerned or is acting alone).  Yet (or: Now) God is One.

            [note: to make a promise, one is sufficient – there is no need for a middleman]

21.  Is the Law, then, following the pattern of (or: down from; or: down against; or: on a par with; commensurate with; corresponding to) God's promises?  May it not happen (It could not come to be; = Of course not)!  For if a law (or: [the] Law) were given which continued having power or being able at any point to make alive (to construct or create living folks; to engender living ones; to impart life), really, the eschatological deliverance of fairness and equity resulting in righted relationships (the liberating and rightwising qualities of justice, freedom from guilt and life as it ought to be within the Way pointed out; or: = new covenant inclusion) was likely being from out of the midst of [the] Law [= Torah; other MSS: residing within law].

22.  But to the contrary, the Scripture encircles and encloses [as fish in a net] all things, shuts them up together and locks the whole (the totality of everything) under (or: by) failure (error; deviation; the missing of the target; sin), to the end that the Promise would (or: could) suddenly be given to (or: in; for) the folks habitually trusting (or: progressively believing [God] with faith's conviction [about God’s loyalty]) from out of Jesus Christ's faithfulness

(or: forth from the midst of the faith whose source and origin is Jesus Christ; from the midst of the trust and conviction which is Jesus Christ; or: so that the promise [which comes] forth from Jesus Christ’s trust [in God], can at some point be given to the people presently experiencing convinced assurance [in God]).


23.  So before the [time, or, event for] the Faithful One to come (or: prior to the coming of this faith, trust, assurance, conviction and loyalty), we were being continuously restrained, confined and held in custody under the watch of a guard, being folks constantly encircled, enclosed, shut up and locked together by and under Law, [with a view to, aimed and moving] into the Faithfulness (or: the Act of Trust) being about to be unveiled (or: revealed; disclosed),

            [cf Ex. 19:17 (LXX): “under the mountain (i.e., Sinai)”]

24.  so that, consequently, the Law (= Torah) had come to be (had been birthed into existence) and continued being our supervising guardian and attending escort unto, with a view to, and [pointing] into Christ, to the end that we could (or: would) be delivered by the just act and then rightwised to be in the new covenant of right relationships with justice and fairness that characterize the liberty in the Way pointed out, from out of Faithfulness (or: an act of loyalty, trust and faith).

25.  So now with the coming of the Faithful One, we no longer continuously exist (or: are) under [the] supervising guardian or an attending escort [comment: = the Law; Torah]!

26.  For you folks are all [i.e., Jew and non-Jew; male and female; slave and freeman] God's sons, through the faithfulness located and resident within Christ Jesus (or: by means of the trust in union with an Anointing from Jesus; [p46: through Jesus Christ's faithfulness])!

            (or: You see, all you folks [who are] located and centered in Christ Jesus exist being sons of God, by means of that Faithful One!)

27.  For you see, as many of you folks as were immersed into Christ, at once clothed yourselves with Christ (or: were plunged into so as to be enveloped by then saturated and permeated with Anointing – or, the Anointed One – instantly entered within and put on [the] Anointing)!

28.  Within [Him; us], there is not (there does not exist) Jew nor Greek (or: Hellenist); within, there is not (does not exist) slave nor freeman; within, there is not (does not exist) ‘male and female’; for you folks all exist being one within Christ Jesus (or: are all one person in union with an Anointing from Jesus).

29.  Now since you folks belong to Christ (or: have [the] Anointing as your source and origin; or: So since you people have the qualities and character of Christ, and [are] that which is Christ), you are straightway and consequently Abraham's Seed: heirs (possessors and enjoyers of the distributed allotment), down from, corresponding to and in the sphere of Promise!




1.  Now I continue saying, for (or: upon [the length of]) as much time as the heir (the apparent possessor of the distributed allotment) is progressing from being an infant to a minor (one having either no ability, or no right, to speak; = continues being under legal age) he continues essentially differing nothing from a slave, [though] continuously being owner (lord and master) of everything (of all),

2.  but further, he exists being under those to whom the trust is committed (guardians; ones entrusted with control and right to turn upon their charges) and house managers (stewards; administrators) until the father's previously set [time or situation].


3.  Thus also we ourselves, when we were progressing from infants to minors, we continued being folks having been enslaved under (or: by) the System's elementary principles (the rows, ranks and series of the organized system of culture, economy, government in secular society and religion, as well as of the world and universe; or: the rudimentary things pertaining to the cosmos).

4.  Yet when the effect of the filling of the time came (or: that which was filled up by time reached full term), forth from out of a mission (or: from out of the midst of [Himself]), God sent-off His Son, being Himself come to be born from out of a woman, being Himself come to be born under [the rules, authority and influence of] Law, [cf Ex. 19:17, LXX: “under {Sinai}”]

5.  to the end that He could (or: would) buy out (release by purchase; redeem; reclaim [from slavery]) those under [the] Law – so that we could and would receive and take away into possession the placing in the condition of a son (or: the deposit of the Son; the setting in place which is the Son; the constituting as a son; the placing in the Son).


6.  Now, because we exist being (are presently and continuously) sons, God at once sends forth (or: at one point sent off from out of [His] midst) His Son's Spirit (or: the Breath-effect, which is His Son) as an emissary into the midst of our hearts, repeatedly crying out (habitually calling out or exclaiming in an inarticulate cry; even: screaming, shrieking [verb also means: croak, as a bird]), "Abba (Aramaic: = Dad, or, Daddy!), O Father!"

7.  So that, you are (you exist being) no longer a slave, but rather, a son, and since a son, also an heir (a possessor and an enjoyer of the distributed allotment) through God [other MSS: God's heir through Christ].


8.  But on the other hand, at that time, in fact, having not perceived and thus not knowing God, you folks were, and performed as, slaves to (or: for) those [who], by nature, are not gods.

9.  Yet now, coming to know God by intimate experience and personal insight – or, rather, being known intimately by God – how are you folks progressively turning around again, upon the weak (feeble; infirm; diseased; impotent) and poor (beggarly) elementary and rudimentary principles to which (for which; in which) you people are presently wanting (and progressively intending) to again become, and perform as, slaves anew (or: back again)?

10.  You are for yourselves and in yourselves continuously watching closely and observing days [e.g., sabbaths; days for fasting] and months (or: new moons) and seasons (or: appointed situations [e.g., feasts]) and [sacred] years!

11.  I continue fearing for you, lest somehow I have, to the point of exhaustion, labored in vain (for no purpose) into you folks.


12.  Brothers (= Fellow believers), I beg of you, progressively become as I, for I also [was; am] as you folks.  You did me no wrong (or: You folks treat me unfairly in nothing).

13.  Now you have seen and known that through weakness (impotence; sickness; infirmity; feebleness) of the flesh (or: = pertaining to [my] imperfect human nature; = whose source is the self which was affected by the System; = which is the deficient inner person) I formerly brought and announced the message of goodness, ease and well-being to you folks,

14.  and yet you folks did not despise or treat as nothing your [other MSS: my] ordeal (or: trial; testing) – located within my flesh (= in my human weaknesses) – nor did you spit it out (= reject it as loathing; [note: perhaps referring to the practice of spitting to break the spell of “an evil eye” – a common pagan belief]), but to the contrary, you took me in your arms and welcomed me as God's agent (or: messenger) – as Jesus Christ!


15.  Where, then, [is] your happiness?  For, I continually bear witness to you folks (or: give testimony for you) that, if possible (if [you were] able), upon gouging (digging) out your eyes you would give [them] to me!

16.  So then, by habitually being real and speaking Truth to you (constantly telling you the truth; progressively speaking reality to you), have I come to be your enemy?


17.  They are constantly zealous over you folks (= These folks are constantly showing you great attention in order to win you over) – [though] not beautifully (or: ideally; in a fine way).  But on the other hand they are constantly willing (intending; wanting) to shut you out (to exclude you), so that you folks might be habitually zealous over them (= trying to win their favor).

18.  Now [it is] always ideal (fine; beautiful) to be normally made zealous (or: to continue having a ferment of spirit) within a beautiful (fine; ideal) thing or situation, and not only within the situation for me to be present (or: at your side) and focused toward you folks.

19.  O my little children (born ones), with whom I am progressing, again, in childbirth labor (travail; labor pains) until Christ may be suddenly formed (= until the Anointing would be at some point birthed) within you folks!

20.  Yet I was wanting (or: intending) to be present (at your side) and focused toward you right now!... and then to alter (change; make otherwise) my voice (or: tone; sound)... because I continue without a way or path to bring myself in union with you folks (or: = I am now perplexed, uncertain, disturbed and at an impasse in your case).


21.  Go on telling me, those of you constantly wanting or intending to be under Law (or: exist [controlled] by a legalistic custom or system, or [Torah]), do you not continue listening to and hearing the Law (or: paying attention to the [Torah])?

22.  For it has been, and stands, written, that Abraham had two sons: one forth from out of the servant girl (the maid; the female slave), and one from out of the freewoman.

23.  But, on the one hand, the one from out of the servant girl (the maid) had been born (generated and birthed) down from (in accord with; on the level of) flesh (= by human means); on the other hand, the one from out of the freewoman [was] through Promise (or: a promise)

24.  – which things are habitually being allegorized (or: are normally being expressed in an allegory; are commonly spoken of as something other [than what the language means]) – for these women are (= represent) two settled arrangements (covenants; contracts; wills): one, on the one hand, from Mount Sinai, habitually (repeatedly; continuously) giving birth into slavery (or: bondage) – which is Hagar. [cf Ex. 19:17 (LXX)]

25.  Now this Hagar is (= represents) Mount Sinai, within Arabia, and she continuously stands in the same line (or: keeps step in the same rank; marches in a column; walks or stands in a parallel row; or: is habitually rudimentary together; = corresponds to) with the present Jerusalem, for she continues in slavery (or: bondage) with her children.

26.  Yet, on the other hand, the Jerusalem above is (continues being) free, who is (or: which particular one continues being) our mother.

27.  For it has been and stands written,

"Be made well-minded (Be given a competent way of thinking; Be made glad; Be turned to a good attitude), barren (or: sterile) woman, O woman consistently not bringing forth (not bearing; not giving birth; not producing)!  Break forth (or: Shatter) in pieces and shout for joy (or: implore aloud), O woman consistently not having labor pains (birth pangs), because many [are] the children (the born-ones) of the desolate woman (of the abandoned woman of the desert), rather than of the woman continuously having (holding; possessing) the husband." [Isa. 54:1, LXX]

28.  Now we [other MSS: you folks], brothers (= fellow believers; = my family), down from (or: corresponding to; in the sphere of) Isaac, are (continuously exist being) children of Promise (or: ones-born of [the] Promise).

29.  But nevertheless, just as then, the one being born down from (in accordance with; corresponding to; on the level of) flesh (= human efforts) was constantly pursuing and persecuting the one down from (in accordance with; corresponding to; in the sphere of) spirit (or: Breath-effect), so also now.

30.  Still, what does the Scripture yet say?

"Cast out (or: At once expel) the servant girl (the slave-girl; the maid) and her son, for by no means will the son of the servant girl (the slave-girl; the maid) be an heir (take possession of and enjoy the distributed allotment) with the son of the freewoman." [Gen. 21:10]

31.  Wherefore, brothers (= fellow believers; family), we are not (we do not exist being) children of a slave-girl (a servant girl; a maid), but, to the contrary, of the freewoman.




1.  For the [aforementioned] freedom, Christ immediately set us free (or: [The] Anointed One at once frees us in, to, for and with freedom)!  Keep on standing firm, therefore, and do not again be habitually held within a yoke of slavery (or: a cross-lever [of a pair of scales] whose sphere is bondage)

(or: Continuously stand firm, then, in the freedom [to which the] Anointing sets us free, and let not yourselves be progressively confined again by a yoke pertaining to servitude)!

2.  See and individually consider!  I, Paul, continue saying to you folks, that if you should proceed to being circumcised, Christ will continue benefiting you nothing (or: an Anointing will continue of use to you [for] not one thing)!

3.  Now I continue solemnly asserting (attesting; affirming; witnessing), again, to every person (or: human) proceeding to be circumcised, that he is, and continues being, a debtor (one under obligation) to do (to perform; to produce) the whole Law [= the entire Torah]!

4.  You people who in union with (or: centered in; [remaining] within) Law continue being liberated and rightwised, from grace (or: placed in the Way pointed out and included in the new covenant of grace; being given an eschatological transformation, which is favor), were at once discharged (made inactive, idle, useless, unproductive and without effect; or: voided, nullified, exempted) away from Christ – you at once fell out from [the grace and favor]!

5.  For you see, in union with [the] Spirit (or: by [the] Breath-effect; with [the] Spirit; or: in spirit) – forth from out of faithfulness (or: [the] trust-faith-loyalty) – we, ourselves, continuously (or: progressively) receive by taking away, as with our hands, from out of [the] expectation which belongs to, comes from and which is [the] rightwising, eschatological deliverance within the Way pointed out (or: forth from the midst of [the] expected hope, which is the state of being liberated, pointed in the right direction, and included as a participant in the new covenant),

6.  for within Christ Jesus (or: for you see, in union with [the] Anointed Jesus) neither circumcision continues having strength, for competence or effectiveness, to be availing (or: be of service for) anything, nor [does] uncircumcision, but rather, [it is the] faithfulness (or: trust; faith; loyalty): of itself continuously working effectively (operating; being inwardly active and productive) through Love ("[God's] acceptance of the object of love without restriction, in spite of the estranged, profanized and demonized state of the object; the whole being's drive and movement toward reunion with another, to overcome existential separation; an ecstatic manifestation of the Spiritual Presence" – Paul Tillich, ibid., on agape; brackets mine; cf John 3:16; 1 Cor. 13:4-8).


7.  You folks have been running beautifully (finely; ideally)!  Who (or: What) cut in on you folks, to hinder or thwart you, [for you] not to continue to be persuaded (convinced) by (or: in; with) the Truth and this reality?

8.  This "art of persuasion" (or: The enticement; or: The yielding to [their] persuasion) [comes] not from out of the One continuously calling you folks.

9.  A little yeast (or: leaven) is progressively permeating so as to ferment (to be leavening) the whole batch of kneaded dough.

10.  I myself have been convinced so as to be confident (have come to a settled persuasion), [with a view] into you folks – within [the] Lord (Owner; [= Yahweh, or Christ]; or: I am confident in [the] Lord, [directing my thoughts] into you) – that you will [in] nothing continue being disposed otherwise (or: that you will have not [even] one other opinion or frame of mind).  Now the person constantly agitating and disturbing you people will lift up and progressively carry (or: bear) the effect of the decision (or: result of [his] sifting and judgment), whoever he or she may be.


11.  Now I, brothers (= fellow believers; = my family), if am still habitually preaching circumcision as the message, why am I still being constantly pursued and persecuted?

If that has been the case, then the snare (trap-spring; bait-stick; = offense; = a stumbling-block) of the cross (the execution stake) has been, and remains, discharged (made inactive, down-idled, useless, unproductive and without effect; or: = removed or abolished).

12.  Would that (or: I wish that) those continually unsettling you (causing you to rise up as in an insurrection; thus: disturbing or exciting you folks) will also, one after another, cut themselves away (i.e., amputate themselves from your body [of believers]; or: cut themselves off [note: some read this to mean to mutilate themselves or castrate themselves])!

13.  For you folks were called upon the foundation of (on the basis of; for the purpose of) freedom, [my] brothers.  Only not (or: Just not) the freedom [which is leading] into a starting point (or: unto an opportunity, occasion or incentive; to a base of operation) for (to; in; by; with) the flesh [comment: = circumcision with the flesh ordinances and ceremonial laws of Judaism; or: = personal license for the estranged human nature], but to the contrary, through the Love [agape: cf vs. 6b, above] be continuously slaving for one another (serving and performing the duties of a slave to each other).

14.  For, the entire Law has been fulfilled and stands filled up within one word (or: within one thought or idea; within one saying or message) – within the one:

"You will continue to love [agapao; cf vs. 6b, above] your near-one (your associate; your neighbor; the one close by your position), as (in the same way as; or: as he/she were) yourself." [Lev. 19:18; comment: this one "expressed thought" is the idea and purpose of the Word]

15.  Now since, or if, you folks are habitually biting and repeatedly eating one another down, watch out, lest you may be used up and consumed by (or: under) one another.

16.  So I continue saying, be habitually walking about (= living your life) in spirit (or: by [the] Spirit; with a Breath-effect), and you should under no circumstance (or: would by no means) bring to fruition (carry to its goal; end up with; bring to maturity) the full rushing passion (the over-desire; craving) originating in flesh

(= pertaining to the estranged human nature, or the self which has been dominated by a system of culture or religion; or: corresponding to flesh-[righteousness]; belonging to [a religious system] of flesh-works).

17.  For the flesh [system or nature] is constantly rushing passionately down upon (or: against) the spirit (or: Breath-effect), and the spirit (or: Breath-effect) down on (or: against) the flesh [nature, or, system of religion], for these things are constantly lying in opposition to each other (lying set to displace each other), so that – whatever you may habitually be intending (wanting; willing; purposing) – these things you repeatedly can not be doing.

            [comment: either because of the estranged flesh nature, or, because of the rules of the system]

18.  Yet since (or: if) you folks are continuously being led in spirit (by [the] Spirit; to [the] Spirit; with a Breath-effect), you do not exist (you are not) under Law [= Torah; = the flesh system of works].


19.  Now the works (actions; deeds) of the flesh [religion] (or: = whose source and origin are the estranged human nature; or: pertaining to the flesh [system, or, nature]; or: = whose results and realm are the self in slavery to a system) [are] seen and made apparent in clear light, which are, and continue being, the works of a prostitute (or: [the] Prostitute): uncleanness (or: waste or worthless material, as of decayed flesh; a never-pruned tree; material that has not been sifted), excess (immoderation; outrageous behavior),

20.  idolatry (being a servant to or worshiping external forms or appearances, phantoms of the mind, unsubstantial or reflected images, or conveyed impressions) sorcery (employment of drugs and enchantments; magic rites; witchcraft), hostilities (enmities; alienations), strife (contentious disposition), jealousies (or: zealous emotions), stirring emotions (rushing passions; furies), factions, standings-apart (divisions), sects (religious denominations; parties with a particular opinion; the making of choices from preferences),

21.  envies, murders, intoxications (times of being drunk), festal processions (or: excessive feastings), and things like to these [whether religious, or personal], which things I continue predicting (saying beforehand; or: = giving warning) to you folks, just as I said before, that those habitually practicing (or: performing) such [religious, or personal,] things will not be inheriting (receiving and enjoying a distributed allotment of) God's reign (kingdom; sovereign influence and activities).


22.  Now the Spirit's fruit (or: So the fruit whose origin and source is the Spirit; But the fruit which is Breath-effect; Yet the fruit of the Attitude) is: love (unrestricted acceptance and the drive to overcome existential separation), joy, peace (or: harmony; [= shalom]), length before a stirring of emotion (slowness of rushing toward something; long-enduring; longsuffering; patience; putting anger far away), useful kindness, goodness (virtuousness), faith (or: faithfulness; trust; trustworthiness; loyalty; reliance; reliability; allegiance; fidelity),

23.  gentle friendliness (meekness; mildness), inner strength (self-control).  [The] Law is not down from such things (or: In the sphere of such things [the] Law does not exists; There is no law against such things; Law does not correspond to and is not on the level of such things).

24.  Now those whose source and origin is Christ Jesus (or: those who belong to the Anointed Jesus) crucified the flesh (or: put the flesh [system] on an execution stake; or: = associate their old estranged human nature as being put to death along with Christ Jesus), together with the results and effects of the experiences (emotions; feelings; sufferings; passions) and the over-desires (rushing passionately upon things; full-rushing emotions).

25.  Since (or: If) we continue living in and by spirit (or: for [the] Spirit; to Breath-effect; or: with attitude), we also can habitually advance orderly in line in regard to, or amidst, elementary principles (or: [observing] rudimentary elements), in and by spirit (or: for [the] Spirit; by Breath-effect; with attitude; or: = walk in rank following [the footsteps] behind the Spirit). [cf Rom. 4:12]

26.  We can (or: should) not repeatedly (or: habitually) come to be (or: Let us stop becoming) folks with empty glory (or: a vacuous reputation; = to be egotistical or conceited), continually being those challenging one another [as to combat], constantly envying one another.




1.  Brothers (= Fellow believers; = My family)!  Even if a person (or: human) may be at some point overtaken (caught; laid hold of before; be surprised) within the effect of some slip or falling to the side (or: the result of some offense, lapse or mistake), you folks – the spiritual ones (the people influenced by the Breath-effect and Attitude) – repeatedly (or: continuously) adjust, mend or repair such a one so as to thoroughly prepare and equip him, within a spirit of gentle friendliness (attitude of meekness; breath of mild kindness), as you each are constantly keeping a watchful eye on yourself (carefully noting yourself with regard to the goal), and so you folks may not at some point be put to the proof (or: and you, yourself, would not be tried, tested or harassed by some ordeal).

2.  You folks be habitually lifting up and carrying one another's heavy burdens and oppressive matters (grievous weights of and from one another), and thus, you will continuously fulfill [or, with other MSS: In this way, at once fill up and fulfill] Christ's Law

(or: the law which is Christ; the law of the Anointing; [other MSS: and in this manner, at once fill up the law of the Christ {the law whose character and source is Christ}]).

3.  For you see, if anyone, being presently nothing, continues imagining (supposing; presuming) himself to be something, he continues leading his own mind astray (he keeps on deceiving himself; he misleads and cheats his intellect and way of thinking).

4.  So let each one habitually put his own work to the test for approval (examine and prove the deeds and actions which he does), and then he will continue having a cause for exultation-effects (or: hold a sense of achievement) in regard to himself alone, and not in comparison with the other person,

5.  for, each one will lift up and progressively carry (or: shoulder) his own specific little load (or: pack; small thing to be borne).


6.  Now let the person being habitually orally-instructed (being sounded down [from above] into the ears so that they ring) in the Word (the message) constantly express common being to (or: hold common partnership in and fellowship for; share equally with) the one regularly giving the oral instruction (sounding down and making the ears ring), in all good things.

7.  Do not be continually led astray (or: Stop being caused to wander and being deceived); God is not one to be sneered at (to have a nose turned up at; to be scorned, mocked or treated like a fool), for "whatever a person is in the habit of sowing, this also he will reap,"

8.  because the person continually sowing into the flesh of himself (= his estranged inner being), will progressively reap corruption (spoil; ruin; decay) forth from out of the flesh (= the estranged inner being);

            (or: the one habitually sowing into the flesh [system], of himself will continue to reap decay from out of the flesh [system];)

yet the one constantly sowing into the spirit (or: the Breath) will be progressively reaping eonian life (life having the characteristics of the Age [of Messiah]; or: life from the Age that lasts on through the ages) forth from out of the spirit (or: the Spirit; the Breath; the attitude).

9.  So – not being people [who are] let loose out from (or: set free from out of) [the laboring] (or: not being made unstrung or exhausted so as to be relaxing [from laboring]) – we should not in worthlessness be remiss (or: act badly by failing; be despondent; in bad quality, give up) in habitually doing (making; constructing; producing) the beautiful (the fine; the ideal; the noble), for in our own appropriate situation (or: in our own appointed season; or: to or by our own fitness and proportion) we will progressively gather in a harvest (or: will continue reaping).

10.  Consequently, then, as we are continuing to hold a fitting situation [or, with other MSS: while we may continue having occasion or a fertile moment], we can keep on actively working the good [other MSS: we should habitually be performing the excellent; we can continue in the business of the virtuous] toward all – and especially toward the families and the households of the Faithful One (or: which are characterized by the faith-trust [arising] from [His] loyal act)!

11.  Consider (or: See) how large [are the] letters [i.e., of the alphabet] [which] I write to you, in (or: by; with) my [own] hand!

            [comment: Paul is doing this to make his point, i.e., he is “shouting” at them via the script, so that they will take note of the point he is making]

12.  As many as continually want (intend; will; purpose) to make a good impression (a pleasing appearance; a fair face, front or facade) within flesh [i.e., in a flesh system or religion], these are habitually urging, or trying to compel or force, you folks (or: making you feel obliged) to proceed to be circumcised – only so that they may not be continually pursued and persecuted for (or: in; with) the cross of Christ Jesus (or: by the execution stake that pertains to the Anointed Jesus).

13.  For not even the folks being presently (or: currently getting) circumcised (or, as a middle: habitually circumcising [people]; requiring [the practice of] circumcision; [other MSS: having been circumcised]) are themselves habitually keeping (guarding; protecting; observing; maintaining) [the] Law, but even so, they constantly want and intend you folks to proceed to be circumcised, so that they may have cause for boasting in your flesh [ritual or religion].


14.  Now may it not happen to me (or: in me) to take up the practice of boasting, except within the cross (the execution stake) of our Lord, Jesus Christ, through Whom (or: through which [i.e., the cross]) the organized System (or: the world of culture, economy, government and religion) has been, and continues being, crucified (executed on the stake) in me (or: to me; for me; by me; with me), and I by (to; in; with; for) the organized System (the world; = their culture, secular society, religion, and government).

15.  For you see [some MSS add: within Christ Jesus], neither circumcision nor uncircumcision continues being anything, but rather: a new creation (a founding and settling [as a village] with a new character, in a place that was wild and without order; a new act of framing and building).

16.  So as many as are habitually advancing [other MSS: will advance; can advance] in line by ranks, corresponding to this measuring rod

(or: continue belonging to the rank living in conformity to this rule; or: shall in this standard progressively observe the rudimentary elements or elementary principles and walk in line with them),

Peace (harmony; [= shalom]) and Mercy [are continually] upon them – even (or: that is) upon the Israel whose origin and source is God (or: God's Israel).

17.  Pertaining to the rest (or: In regard to what is left over), let no one continue offering hard labor to me (or: let no one be making trouble for me or be holding me to his side for a beating), for I myself continuously carry the brand marks [of a slave or a soldier, showing ownership] of Jesus, within (or: the effects of being stuck by a point from Jesus, on) my body!

18.  The grace and favor of, and whose origin and source are, our Lord, Jesus Christ [are continually] with your spirit (or: the Breath-effect belonging to you folks), brothers (= fellow believers; = [my] family)!  It is so! (Amen; So let it be; Count on it!)


[written circa A.D. late 56 – Based on the critical analysis of John A.T. Robinson]

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