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The words “eternal (eonian),” “all,” and “judgment” embody central concepts within the Christian religion.  For your consideration and meditation, we have gathered together a few significant verses that lend insights into these concepts.  At the beginning of each of the three, following sections we present the literal meanings of the Greek terms.




The Greek adjective, aiōnios – that is commonly rendered “eternal” – comes from the noun aiōn, which means “an age; an indefinite period of time; an eon.”  Obviously, our English word “eternal” is an inappropriate translation of an adjective whose meaning is derived from the concept of a period of TIME.  Young’s Literal Translation uses “age-during” to render this adjective.  Rotherham offers the term, “age-abiding.”  The Concordant Literal New Testament chose “eonian,” since the noun “eon” is a common English term for the noun “age.”


We have selected the word “eonian” for the adjective, and have offered expanded, parenthetical renderings, such as “having the characteristics and qualities of the sphere of the Age; for the ages; eon-lasting; whose source is the Age; age-enduring; of and for the ages; pertaining to the Age.”  Based upon the perception in Second Temple Judaism that there were two ages – the present age in which they were living, and the coming age of the Messiah – I often insert the phrase “[of Messiah]” to suggest the contextual reference implied in the term “age.”


John 3:36a,

The one habitually trusting (or: continuously going on confidently believing with loyalty) into the Son is now constantly holding and progressively having eonian life

       (life having the characteristics and qualities of the sphere of the Age; life for the ages;

       eon-lasting life; life whose source is the Age [of Messiah]).”


John 6:47,

It is certainly true (or: Amen, amen), I am saying to you folks, the person continuously trusting (or: constantly or progressively believing) presently and continuously holds eonian life (life having its source, qualities and characteristics from the Age; age-enduring and eon-lasting life; or: = the life of the coming Age)!


John 17:3,

Now THIS is (or: exists being) eonian life (life of and for the ages; life pertaining to the Age [of Messiah]): namely, that they may progressively come to intimately and experientially know You, the only true and real (genuine) God – and Jesus Christ, Whom You send forth as an Emissary (or: as well as Jesus [as the] Anointed One, whom You sent off as a Representative).”


1 John 5:19-20,

We have seen and thus know that we are continuously existing from out of the midst of God, yet the whole ordered System (or: the entire realm of religious and secular) is continuously lying outstretched (lying as asleep, idle or dead; reclining) within the gush of misery (within the disadvantageous, laborious and worthless situation; within the sorry plight; in union with wickedness and evil), yet we have seen and thus know that God's Son has arrived and is continuously here, and He has given thorough understanding (comprehension; thought; intelligence; input throughout the mind) to the end that we would constantly know [other MSS: so that we constantly know] by experience the True One (or: the true, the real and the genuine), and we constantly exist within and in union with the True One (or: in the real [situation]; in the midst of Reality): within His Son, Jesus Christ.  This One is the True (Real; Genuine) God, and Life pertaining to and having the qualities of the Age (or: life having its source in the Age [of Messiah]; eonian life; Life of, and on through, the ages).”


1 John 5:12,

The one continually holding (or: constantly having; progressively possessing) the Son continuously holds (constantly has; progressively possesses) the Life.  The one not continuously holding (constantly having) God's Son does not now have (or: hold) the Life.” 

       [comment: it seems that the Son is the Life]


Titus 1:1b-2,

the full, accurate and precise intimate knowledge and experiential insight of Truth and Reality – the [truth and reality] corresponding to and in accord with reverence (pious and devout relations; standing in awe of wellness, with adoration and healthful devotion in true relation to God) [based; standing] upon an expectation (or: hope) of and from eonian life (life having the quality and characteristics of, and its source in, the Age [of Messiah]; life for and throughout the ages) which the non-lying God (the God without falseness) promised – before eonian times (prior to the times belonging to the ages).”


1 Tim. 1:16,

But nonetheless, through this I was mercied (or: I am given mercy), to the end that within me first (= as the foremost case) Jesus Christ may point out so as to publicly display every emotion which is long in arriving (all long-suffering patience) with a view to being an underline (toward [being] a subtype; as facing a sketch or outline; for a pattern) of those about to be habitually believing (or: progressively trusting; one-after-another placing faith) upon Him, [that is,] into the midst of eonian life (into Life which pertains to and has the qualities and characteristics of the Age [of Messiah]; into life of, and which lasts through, the ages).”


2 Cor. 4:18,

while we are not constantly fixing our gaze on or carefully noting the things that are being constantly seen or repeatedly observed, but rather, [we are continuously looking at] those things not being constantly seen or repeatedly observed, because the things being constantly seen and observed [are] for a season (temporary; set toward a certain situation; transient), but those things not being habitually seen or observed pertain to and have their source in the Age ([are] eonian; [continue] age-lasting).”




The Greek words for “all” are found in a lexicon as Pas, Pasa, or Pan – and are either an adjective, or a substantive (used as a noun).  The inflected forms often function for both masculine (referring to people) and neuter (referring to things) subjects.  Examples are:


       Panta – both masculine (people) and neuter (things)

       Pantes – always masculine: people; humanity; everyone

       Panti – both masculine (people) and neuter (things)

       Pantos – both masculine & neuter

       Pantōn – both masculine & neuter

       Pas – always masculine: means all people; all humanity; everyone

       Pasi – both masculine (people) and neuter (things)


So consider the following verses, and the significance of the word “all” that the author used in them.


John 12:32,

"And so then I, if I should be lifted up from out of the earth (or: when I can be exalted forth from the midst of this Land), I will drag [note: drag as with, or in, a net; or: draw, as drawing water with a bucket, or a sword out of a sheath] all mankind (or: everyone) to Myself."


1 Cor. 13:7,

[Love] continuously covers all mankind; it is habitually loyal to all humanity; it constantly has an expectation for all mankind; it is continuously remaining under and giving support to all people.

        (or, since “all” can also be neuter: It progressively puts a protecting roof over all things; it is

        habitually trusting in, and believing for, all things; it is continually hoping in or for all things; it

        keeps on patiently enduring all things.)”


Eph. 1:22-23,

and then placed and aligned all people in humbleness under His feet

        (or: and arranges everyone in a supportive position by His feet; or: then by the feet – which

        are Him – He subjects all things), and yet gives (or: gave) Him, [as] a Head (or:

Source; origin and beginning of a series; or: extreme and top part) over all people and

everything, for the called-out community (or: and as a Head over all humanity, gave Him to the summoned and gathered assembly; or: and then by the called-forth congregation He gives Him [to be the] Source over [the situation] of, and for, all humanity), which [community] is His body, the result of the filling from, and which is, the One Who is constantly filling all things within all humanity

        (or: which continues existing being His body: the resultant fullness, entire content and full

        measure of Him [Who is] progressively making full and completing all things in union with all  

        things, as well as constantly filling the whole, in all people).”


Eph. 4:6,

one God and Father of all humanity –  the One upon all people and moving through all people, and within the midst of all humanity and in union with all people and all things.


Eph. 4:10,

The One stepping down (descending) is Himself also the One stepping up (ascending) far above (back up over) all of the heavens (or: atmospheres; skies), to the end that He would at once fill the Whole (permeate and saturate everything; or: make all things full; bring all things to full measure and completion).”


Heb. 1:2,

upon [the] last of these days spoke to us in a Son whom He placed (or: sets) [as; to be] Heir of all (or: One who receives all humanity as an allotment; or: heir of all things; or: One who received everything as his allotted inheritance) through Whom He also made the ages (or: formed and constructed the various designated periods of time [which compose existence, as well as God's influence and activities]),”


1 Cor. 15:22,

For just as within Adam all keep on (or: everyone continues) dying, in the same way, also, within the Christ, all will be made alive (or: in union with the Anointed One, everyone will be created with Life).”


1 Cor. 15:28,

Now whenever the whole (or: all things) may be completely supportively-aligned in Him (or: subjected to Him; subordinately arranged for Him), then the Son Himself will also be supportively aligned (or: placed and arranged under) in the One (or: to the One) subjecting the whole (all things) in Him and to Him, to the end that God can be all things within the midst of and in union with all humanity (or: may be everything in all things; or: should exist being All in all).”


1 Tim. 2:4,

Who is constantly willing (continuously intending and purposing) all mankind (all humanity) to be saved (delivered; rescued; made healthy and whole), and (or: even) to come into a full, accurate, experiential and intimate knowledge and insight of Truth (or: into a realization of reality),”


1 Tim. 2:6,

the One giving Himself a correspondent ransom (a ransom in the place of and directed toward the situation) over [the situation of and] on behalf of (or: for) all (everyone; all humanity and all things) the witness [note: “the witness” is omitted by A; other MSS: the evidence of which] [will come] in its own fitting situations (or: the Witness for their own seasons; the Testimony to and for His own particular occasions; the evidence [appears] in its own fertile moments).”


Phil. 2:10-11,

to the end that within The Name: Jesus! (or: in union with the name of Jesus; in the midst of the Name belonging to [Yahweh-the-Savior]), every knee (= person) – of the folks upon the heaven (of those belonging to the super-heaven, or [situated] upon the atmosphere) and of the people existing upon the earth and of the folks dwelling down under the ground (or: on the level of or pertaining to subterranean ones) – may bend (or: would bow) in worship, prayer or allegiance, and every tongue (= person) may speak out the same thing (should and would openly agree, confess and acclaim) that Jesus Christ [is] Lord (Master; Owner) – [leading] into [the] glory of Father God (or: unto Father God's good reputation; [progressing] into a manifestation which calls forth praise unto God [the] Father)!


Col. 1:15-16,

It is [this Son] Who is the Image (the Exact Formed Likeness; the Figure and Representation; visible likeness; portrait) of the not-seen God (or: the unable to be seen God; the invisible God), the Firstborn of all creation

        (or: of every creature; or: of every framing and founding; of every act of reducing from        

        a state of disorder and wildness; or: pertaining to the whole creation; or: = the Inheritor of all

        creation Who will also assume authority over and responsibility for every creature [note: this

        is the duty of the firstborn]), because within Him was created (or: in union

with Him is founded and settled, is built and planted, is brought into being, is produced and established) the whole (or: all things) the things within the atmospheres and skies (or: heavens), and the things upon the earth (or: land); the visible things, and the unseen (or: unable to be seen; invisible) things: whether thrones (seats of power) or lordships (ownership systems) or governments (rulers; leadership systems; sovereignties) or authorities – the whole (or: all things) has been created and continues founded and stands framed through means of Him, and [proceeds, or was placed] into Him (or: = He is the agent and goal of all creation).”


Col. 1:20,

and THROUGH Him at once to transfer the all (the whole; = all of existential creation), away from a certain state to the level of another which is quite different

        (or: to change all things, bringing movement away from being down; to reconcile all       

        things; to change everything from estrangement and alienation to friendship and

harmony and move all), INTO Him – making (constructing; forming; creating) peace and joined harmony through the blood of His cross (execution stake): through Him, whether the things upon the earth (or: land) or the things within the atmospheres and heavens!


Heb. 8:11-12,

             11.        "'And they may by no means teach each one his fellow-citizen, and each one

                          his brother, saying, "Know the Lord (or: You must be intimate with [Yahweh]),"

                          because everyone (all) shall perceive and thus understand and be acquainted

                          with Me, from a little one even to a large one of them,

12.        "'because I shall be (exist being) merciful with a propitious covering for their

             injustices (behaviors contrary to the Way pointed out; inequities) and acts of  

             lawlessness, and then I would by no means be reminded further of their

             mistakes and failures (errors and falling short of the target; sins).'"


Rom. 11:32,

For you see, God encloses, shuts up and locks all mankind (everyone; the entire lot of folks) into incompliance (disobedience; stubbornness; lack of being convinced), to the end that He could (or: would; should) mercy all mankind (may make everyone, the all, recipients of mercy)!


Rom. 11:36,

Because, forth from out of the midst of Him, then through the midst of Him (or: through means of Him), and [finally] INTO the midst of Him, [is] the whole (everything; [are] all things; or: = Because He is the source, means and goal/destiny of all things – everything leads into Him)!

By Him (In Him; To Him; For Him; With Him) [is] the glory (the manifestation of that which calls forth praise; the reputation; the notion; the opinion; the credit; the splendor) on into the ages.  It is so (Amen; So be it)!


Rev. 5:13,

And all creation (or: every creature) which exists within the sky (or: atmosphere; heaven), and on the earth, even down under the earth (or: ground; soil), as well as which is upon the sea – even all things (the whole; everything) within them – I heard repeatedly saying,

        ‘The blessing and the honor and the glory (good reputation) and the strength (might) [are]

        in (by; for; to; with) the One continuously sitting upon the throne, and in (by; to; for) the

        little Lamb, on into the ages of the ages.’”


Rev. 21:5,

And then the One (or: He [who is]) continuously sitting upon the throne said,

        ‘Consider this!  I am presently making all things new (or: habitually creating everything [to

        be] new and fresh; progressively forming [the] whole anew; or, reading panta as masculine:

        periodically making all humanity new; progressively creating every person anew; constantly

        constructing all people fresh and new; continuously renewing everyone)!’


Mark 9:49,

Indeed, everyone (all humanity) will be salted (seasoned and preserved) in (with; by) fire!


Now consider this proclamation:

Ps. 145:9,

“Good [is] Yahweh to all; and His compassions [are] over all His works.” (Concordant Version of the Old Testament)




First of all, consider the meanings of the Greek word family from which was derived the term “judgment.”  My translation offers the different nuances and implications of these different Greek words.  Meditate on what is meant about the process that is involved so that you can see what the New Testament is actually saying when it uses these terms:


       Krinō – to separate off, divide out, in order to evaluate, determine and make a decision; to


       Krisis – the process or action of evaluating, determining and making a decision; judging

       Krima – the result or effect of making a decision and judging; judgment

       Katakrinō – to decide against, to make a down-judgment; to condemn

       Katakrima – the result or effect of having been judged against or condemned


Here is one example that is often referenced concerning God’s judgment of people:

Heb. 9:

27.  And now, according to as much as it continues lying-away (or: laid away; reserved-off; stored) in (or: with; for; to) mankind (or: people) to die-away once, but after this a process of evaluating (a separating and making a distinction to be a judging and determining; a deciding),

28.  so also, the Christ – being once borne (or: carried) close into the many (or: being offered once unto and for the many) to carry failures (errors; sins mistakes; deviations; misses of the target) back up again – will continue being made visible (or: will be progressively seen) forth from out of the midst of the second [place (cf 9:3, 7 & 10:9; {comment: = the holy of holies})] – apart from failure (apart from sin; apart from a sin offering; apart from error in attempting to hit the target) – in those (or: by those; to those; for those) habitually receiving (or: progressively taking) from out of the midst of Him, [progressing] into a deliverance (or: [leading] into a rescue; with a view to health and wholeness; into the midst of salvation).

            [note: the Greek word translated "receiving from out of the midst of" is apekdechomai,

            which is dechomai, which means "to take and receive with the hands," with the

            preposition apek-, a contraction of apo, "from," and ek, "out of the midst of" added as a

            prefix.  This verb should not be translated "looking for," or "awaiting"]


But there is also ongoing “evaluating” and “deciding.”


John 12:31a,

At the present time (or: Now) is an evaluation of and a decision pertaining to (or: a sifting of and separation for; or: a judging from) this System (or: this ordered arrangement; this world; this polity, culture and religion; or: this system of control and subjugation; or: this aggregate of humanity).” 


Acts 10:42,

And He passed along the directive (the announced instructions) for us to publicly proclaim, as heralds – to, and among, the people – and to solemnly certify and vehemently argue, by personal evidence in thorough testimony and with witnessing throughout, that this Man is and continues being the very One having been definitely marked out and specified by God [as] He who decides ([the] Evaluator; a Sifter; Judge) concerning presently living folks, and currently dead people.”


2 Tim. 4:1,

I am habitually giving thorough witness (or: constantly testifying and showing evidence in every direction), in the sight of God – even Christ Jesus: the One now being about to be progressively separating living folks and dead folks (or: continuously making a decision about or judging living ones and dead ones) down from (in accord with; corresponding to; in the sphere of; in respect to; in line with; [other MSS: even]) His full manifestation and His reign (or: [with other MSS: and then] His added display as well as His sovereign kingdom activity).”


On offer next are verses from the Old Testament that shed light on God’s purpose for judging people.  Ponder these promises:


Isa. 26:9, “... for when your judgments are in the earth, all the world will learn righteousness.”


Deut. 32:39,

“Look and see!  Look, see and consider, that I Myself continuously exist (or: am Being), and there is (exists) no god besides Me (or: more than Me).  I Myself habitually kill and yet I will be making [them] to live.  I will smite, and then I Myself will heal – and there is none who shall deliver out of My hands.” (LXX, the Greek version of the OT)


Ps 90:3,

“You turn mortal man back to crushed dust, and say, ‘Return, sons of humanity.’”


Isa. 25:8,

“He will swallow up death permanently, and My Lord Yahweh will wipe away every tear from all faces.” (CVOT) Cf 1 Cor. 15:53-57


Ps. 86:9,

“All nations which You have made shall come and worship before You, O Yahweh, and they shall glorify Your Name.”


Job 5:17-18,

“Behold, happy is the mortal whom Eloah [note: another Hebrew word for God] corrects....

For He Himself causes pain, and He shall bind up; He transfixes (impales), and His hands, they shall heal.” (CVOT


Note the parallelism of the final outcome: “He shall bind up… His hands shall heal.”


So again, there is purpose to His judgments. His discipline/correction may be unpleasant for a period of time, but we know from Isaiah 26:9, that the end result FOR THE WHOLE WORLD is righteousness (rightwised [covenant] relationships within the Way pointed out). To further this point concerning the purpose/value of His discipline/correction, consider Hebrews Chapter 12:5b-7:

            "My son, do not be neglecting (giving little care to) the Lord's discipline (education;

            child-training), neither be exhausted (dissolved; = fall apart) while being continually

            scrutinized or convicted (exposed and put to the test; or: reproved) by (or: under) Him,

             6.         for whom the Lord [= Yahweh] is loving (urging toward reunion and acceptance), He is

                         continuously and progressively educating (or: disciplining; child-training), and He is

                         periodically scourging every son whom He is taking alongside with His hands

                         (accepting; receiving)." [Prov. 3:11-12; cf Job 5:17; Ps. 94:12; Phil. 1:29]

7.  [So] be constantly enduring (or: You folks are continuing to remain supportively under) with a view to education, discipline and child-training: as to sons is God Himself continuously bringing [it] to you.  For who is a son (or: what son is there) whom a father is not disciplining, educating and training? [cf Jas. 1:12; Rev. 3:19]


God’s discipline/correction in our lives is evidence of His love for us:


            "Discipline your son while there is expectation,

            And let not your soul indulge in letting him die” (Prov. 19:18; CVOT).


            “He who spares (keeps back) the rod hates his son,

            But he who loves him disciplines him early” (Prov. 13:24; Tanakh).


Consider the beautiful word of encouragement we have in this Psalm:


            “For there is a Moment in His anger,

            But a Life-time in His good-pleasure;

            In the evening comes Weeping to lodge,

            But by the morning ‘tis a Shout of Triumph (or: Jubilant Song)” (Ps. 30:5; Rotherham;    

            parentheses: CVOT)


Though we may experience pain (distress, grief, sorrow) for a little while (1 Peter 1:6b), consider also God’s purpose, the beautiful promises, and our ultimate destiny as is proclaimed in 1 Peter 1:3-9:


3.  Well-spoken of (or: Eulogized; Blessed; or: Well-gathered, laid-out with ease, and worthy of praise) [is] the God and Father of our Lord, Jesus Christ (or: Who is our Owner, Jesus Christ), the One bringing us to birth again (regenerating us; begetting us back up again; causing us to be born again) down from, in line with and in correspondence to His abundant mercy (or: the much-existing sympathizing and active compassion which is Him) – through Jesus Christ's resurrection forth from out of the midst of dead folks.  [We are born again]:

            into a progressively living expectation (or: into the midst of continuously living hope);

             4.         into the midst of an incorruptible (unspoilable; imperishable; unruinable; undecayable),

                         unstained (undefiled), and unfading (or: unwithering) inheritance (or: enjoyment of and

                         participation in an allotted portion as a possession) –

                                  one having been kept in view, watched-over, guarded, and which 

                                  continues being maintained and kept intact within the midst of [the, or our]

                                  atmospheres (or: in union with heavens; = in realms of spirit);

             – [which things were and are being birthed and entering] into the midst of you folks,

5.  the ones being continuously garrisoned within (or: kept under watch and guarded in the center of) God's power, in union with an ability which is God, through [His] faithfulness,

            into a deliverance (a rescue which brings health, wholeness and a return to your

            original state and condition; salvation; a [period of] rescue) [which is now] ready to be

            unveiled (revealed; disclosed) within the midst of and in union with [this] last season

            (or: resident within a final fitting situation; in a final fertile moment; on [this] last occasion),

             6.  within which [season and deliverance] you folks are presently feeling constant joy and

             happiness and are continuing to rejoice exceedingly – though for a little while, at present,

             since (or: if) it continues being binding and necessary, being pained (distressed; grieved;

             sorrowed) within various tests (or: different trials and ordeals) to put you to the proof.


7.  [This is] to the end that the examined and tested approval of your faith (of the trust and faithfulness of you folks) [being] of much greater value and worth, and more precious, than of gold that constantly loses itself away (perishes of itself) despite being progressively tested and examined through fire – might be found [progressing] into praise (approval; commendation) and glory (or: a good reputation) and honor (value; worth) within an unveiling of Jesus Christ (or: in union with a revelation whose source is, which has the character of, and which is, Jesus, [the] Anointed One; in the midst of a disclosure from [Messiah] Jesus),

8.  Whom not seeing (or: perceiving), you folks are continuously loving and accepting (or: experiencing the urge for reunion); into Whom at the present moment you folks are not constantly looking, yet are habitually believing (or: continuously placing [your] trust and loyalty).  You folks are repeatedly rejoicing and being very happy in indescribable (or: incapable of being spoken out) joy which also exists having been made glorious

            (or: by unspeakable and glorified joy; in joy [that is] inexpressible and has made a notable

            reputation; with joy that is glorious beyond words, and which is filled with imagination and   

            good opinion),

9.  being ones constantly bringing to, or conveying in, yourselves – as provision, attentive care and kindly keeping – the promised goal (the finished product; the aim and result; the purpose and destiny) of the [other MSS: your] faith and trust: deliverance ([the] restoration to wholeness and health; a salvation) of souls (or: from inner beings and selves; or: = of people)!


What an incredibly beautiful purpose, promise and

ultimate destiny for all of humanity!




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