The Complete Book of Second Corinthians:


NEW!   The JMNT Blue Bold Edition (Second Corinthians)

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This is a work that seeks to give the reader some involvement in the process of translating by presenting a range of semantic meanings of significant Greek words in the midst of the text.

In each passage, read the BLUE BOLD type first without the additional meanings.  Then read it with the other word meanings.  Prayerfully consider the possible meanings and the context and let the Holy Spirit give you understanding and revelation.







1.  Paul, one sent off as a representative from Jesus Christ (or: an emissary of Jesus [the Messiah]; an envoy of [the] Anointed Jesus) through the effect of God's will and purpose, and Timothy, the brother.  To God's called-out community – the one being (existing) within the midst of Corinth – together with all those set apart (the holy ones; the saints or sacred people) being (existing) within [the] whole [region of] Achaia:

2.  Grace (The influence and boon of gracious favor, kindness, joy and goodwill) and peace (or: harmony; [= shalom]) from God, our Father and Lord, Jesus Christ (or: from our Father, God, and [the] Owner, Jesus [the] Anointed [= Messiah]).


3.  The God and Father of our Master, Jesus Christ (or: our Lord and Owner, Jesus [the] Anointed One [= Messiah]) [is] One full of words of ease and thoughts of wellness (or: [is] well-spoken of and blessed): the Father of the compassions and sympathetic acts of pity, and God of every entreaty and of every calling to one's [or: His] side for aid, relief, comfort, consolation and encouragement (or: a God who is all the functioning of a Paraclete),

4. the One continuously calling us to receive aid, relief, comfort, consolation and encouragement at [His] side (or: the One habitually functioning as our Paraclete) upon [the occurrence of] all our squeezing pressure (or: our every affliction, tribulation and oppression), [then directing and leading] us into the [sphere or situation] to in turn continue able – and to constantly have power – to keep on performing as paracletes in repeatedly giving aid, relief, comfort, consolation and encouragement for those within the midst of every pressure (oppression; squeezing, affliction and tribulation) – [and this] through means of the [same] assistance with which we, ourselves, are being constantly called alongside by God to receive as aid, relief, comfort, consolation and encouragement [from Him] (or: from which we, ourselves, are habitually being given the services of the Paraclete by God)

5.  because correspondingly as the effects and results of (or: from) the Christ's experiences and sufferings are progressively superabounding into (or: encompassing in full measure unto) us, in the same way, through the Christ (or: the Anointed One; [= the Messiah]; or: the Anointing), our calling [folks] to our side to give [them] help, relief, comfort and encouragement is also progressively superabounding so as to surround us in full quantity (or: the work of the Paraclete constantly environs in abundance from us, by the Anointing)!


6.  Now whether we are being continually squeezed and compressed, or oppressed in tribulation, over and on behalf of your assistance (or: a calling to [His] side for relief, aid and comfort) and deliverance (salvation, rescue, health, wholeness and restoration), or whether we are repeatedly being given relief, intimate assistance, comfort and encouragement over and because of your assistance and comfort – referring to [that aid and encouragement] which is continuously performing inward work and operation within the midst of [that] persistent remaining under in endurance of the very effects of experiences and results of sufferings which we, ourselves, are habitually experiencing, or suffering –

7.  either way, our expectation (or: expectant hope) [stands] on good footing (or: [is] stable, unwavering, with feet firmly planted; or: [stands] guaranteed as valid; [remains] a confirmation of a certification of the purchase) over and with regard to you folks, having seen and continuing to know that just as you are – and continue to be – people of common existence (partners, participants and sharers) from the effects of experiences and the results of sufferings, in the same way [are you] of the relief, aid and encouraging comfort as well.


8.  For we do not continue intending (or: wanting; purposing) for you folks to continue being ignorant (unaware or without intimate knowledge), brothers (= fellow members and believers), over [other MSS: concerning] our squeezing pressure (tribulation; affliction; oppression) referring to [that] which happened [other MSS add: to us] in Asia – that corresponding to an act of overshooting or throwing beyond the target (= something extreme and excessive) over and above [our] power and ability, we were weighted down (burdened [with difficulty]) so as to be without an exit (with no way out) for us, even to continue living!

9.  Further yet, we ourselves had held and continued having, within ourselves, the result and effect from a decision of the Death (or: from a judgment which meant death; or: the considered decision and insightful response in regard to death) to the end that we may not exist being ones having put trust and confidence upon ourselves, but to the contrary, upon the God Who is continually (habitually; periodically; repeatedly; or: presently) awakening and raising up the dead ones!

10.  He Who snatched (dragged so as to rescue) us from out of the midst of the very prime (or: peak) of Death (or: out of a death of such proportions) will also repeatedly rescue and drag us to Himself – into Whom we have placed our hope and expectation so as to yet rely that He also will Himself continue still dragging us further toward Himself.

11.  Your habitually cooperating and working together in undergirding support over us (= on behalf of us, or, concerning our situation), even in the need (or: and by the [or: your] petition regarding [our] need), [gives the result] that forth from out of [other MSS: in] many faces (= people; or: = outward appearances) [and] through (or: by means of) many folks, the effect and result of grace and favor can (or: may; would) be sent (or: given) unto us in the ease, prosperity and wellness of grace over our [situation] (or: may be given in gratitude on our [other MSS: your] behalf).


12.  For you see, our boasting (or: expression of being proud) is this – [and it is] the witness and testimony of our conscience: that within the midst of the System (world of religion, culture, economy, secular society and government), and especially (or: more exceedingly) in our relationship with you folks, we were turned back and caused to live our lives and conduct ourselves within, and in union with, God's simplicity [other MSS: quality and aspect of being set apart (holiness)] and clearness from a decision made in sunlight (or: a sincerity which is God) and this not within fleshly wisdom or cleverness, but to the contrary, within the midst of and in union with God's grace (or: the favor from, and which is, God).

13.  So then, we are not now writing other things to you, but rather either (or: other than) what you continue reading and recognizing, or even what you folks continue progressing to full, intimate knowledge and insight about (or: what you presently recognize and acknowledge as added knowledge and complete gnosis).  Yet I continue expecting and hoping that unto the purposed and destined goal (until maturity and the finished product) you will continue to additionally, accurately and intimately realize and know by experience,

14.  just as you recognized with added personal knowledge about us, partly, that we have as much cause to be proud of you, exactly as you also [have] of us – resident within and in union with the Day which pertains to, is from and is, our Lord (Master; Owner), Jesus.


15.  So, with (or: in; by) this persuaded confidence, I had previously continued intending (planning and purposing) to come to you folks, so that you folks could have (or: may hold) a second grace (influence and boon of undeserved joyous favor, kindness and goodwill; [other MSS: {occasion for} joy]),

16.  and to pass on through you [i.e., through your city] into Macedonia, and to come back again to you from Macedonia, and [then] to be sent forward with funds and supplies (perhaps: to be accompanied or escorted on part of the journey) by you folks [other MSS: from you] into the Judean [area].

17.  Therefore, continuing in planning and intending this, surely I do not consequently engage in joking (employ levity; use lightness; may = resort to fickleness or irresponsibility), do I?  Or the things which I habitually plan and purpose, am I constantly planning down from [the] flesh (or: = in accordance with the estranged human nature; or: = on the level of a self that is oriented to the System), so that it may be with me, "Yes, yes," and "No, no!"?

18.  Now God [is] full of faith and reliable (loyal; faithful; trustworthy)!  [With] that, our message (or: word) toward you folks is not [other MSS: did not come to be] "Yes," and then [or, at the same time] "No,"

19.  for the Son of God, Jesus Christ [= Jesus the Messiah] – the One within the midst of, among and in union with you folks – being heralded and publicly proclaimed through us, [i.e.,] through Silvanus [this may = Silas], Timothy and me – did not come to be (or: was not birthed) "Yes," and yet, "No," but to the contrary, [the divine] "Yes" has been birthed and remains in existence within Him (or: in union with Him, "Yes" has happened and continues being; or: within the midst of Him, [the] "Yes" has come into being and remains)!

20.  So you see, as many as [be] God's promises, [they are] the "Yes," within and in union with Him.  Wherefore also, through Him [is] The Amen (or: the affirmation; the "Count on it!;" the "It is so") in (or: by; with) God [directed] toward and face to face with glory, a good opinion or reputation, and a manifestation which calls forth praise, through us.

21.  Now God [is] the One repeatedly placing us on good, firm footing (constantly stabilizing and establishing us; or: confirming, guaranteeing and validating us as possessed by a purchase) and completely (or: instantly, in one point in time) anointing us, together with you folks, into Christ.

22.  He [is] also the One completely (or: instantly, in one point in time) sealing us (stamping us with an identity-mark; imprinting us for ownership; or: validating/guaranteeing our genuineness), even (or: and) completely (instantly, in one point in time) giving the advance transaction of the agreement (or: the pledge and down payment guaranteeing full payment for purchase; or: a dowry) of the Spirit (or: which is the spirit; or: having its source and origin in the Breath-effect; or: which belongs and pertains to the spirit; from the Attitude) within the midst of our hearts.


23.  Now I, myself, continue to call upon God [to be] a witness (or: [as] evidence) upon my own soul (mind, will, emotions; inner life; self; or: = I stake my life on it!), that in my continuing in holding back and sparing you folks, I no longer came (or: I did not yet go) into Corinth.

24.  Not that we are constantly acting like your owners and exercising lordship with regard to the faith (or: performing like masters over your loyalty and trust), but to the contrary, we exist being (or: we are) fellow workers regarding and pertaining to your joy, for you folks have taken a stand and now stand firm by trust (or: in and for the faith; with confident loyalty).




1.  So I decided this in (or: for; by) myself: not to come (or: go) to you folks again in anxiety (or: grief; sorrow; sadness; = to make another painful visit).

2.  For since (or: if) I, myself, continually cause you anxiety (sadness; sorrow; grief; pain), who (or: which one) [is] the person constantly putting me in a good frame of mind (habitually cheering me and putting my mind at ease), if not (or: except) the one being constantly made sorrowful, sad, upset and anxious by me?

3.  And so I write (or: wrote) this very thing, so that in coming I may (or: should; would) not have anxiety, sadness or grief from those concerning whom it was being necessary and binding for me to unceasingly rejoice, having been persuaded and now placing trust and confidence upon you all, because my joy has its source in all of you folks (or: my joy exists being what pertains to all of your [situations]).

4.  You see, I write (or: wrote) to you from out of the midst of much pressure (squeezing; affliction; tribulation; oppression) and compression (or: confinement) of heart – through many tears – not so that you may be made anxious or sad, but rather to the end that you can (or: may; should; would) experience intimate knowledge and personal insight of the love (the participating, unambiguous, accepting drive toward reunion) which I progressively possess and superabundantly hold [being directed] into the midst of you folks.


5.  Now if anyone has been the cause of anxiety, pain, distress, sorrow or sadness, he has not upset or distressed me, but rather, to an extent, all of you – so then, I should not continue to be adding weight upon [you folks] (or: but to the contrary, in part – not that I would now belabor [the point] – [it has been done to] you all).

6.  This assessment (or: added evaluation) – the one [held; given] by the majority – [should be] sufficient (or: enough) for (or: with; to) such a person,

7.  so that in its place – and to a greater degree – you folks are to extend grace and to perform as paracletes (call him alongside to give aid, relief, encouragement, comfort and consolation), lest somehow such a person may be swallowed up by more excessive anxiety (or: drunk down in, and to, more abundant sorrow, grief, pain, distress and sadness).

8.  Therefore, I continue to call you folks alongside (I now act the paraclete, to encourage and entreat you) to affirm (make valid; ratify; authoritatively confirm) love unto him (into the midst of him),

9.  for I write, also, into this [purpose], to the end that I can personally (intimately and experientially) come to know the proof (evidence) from your testing – whether you folks continue being those who submissively listen and pay attention unto all people (or: hear and obey as you proceed into all situations; or: humbly pay attention, with a view to all [that has been said]).

10.  Now to whom you repeatedly extend grace or deal favorably [concerning] anything (or: for whom you constantly deal graciously or give forgiveness [in] anything), I also [do], for you see, in whatever I myself have also been extended grace, treated graciously or forgiven – since I have been extended grace, favor or forgiveness for something (or, as a middle: for what I myself have extended grace – if I have extended grace for anything) – [it is] on account of and for the sake of you folks, within the presence of Christ (or: in union with the face of the Anointing; = in sync with what the anointing looks like),

11.  to the end that we may (or: can; would) not at some point be held or possessed in more things or situations by the adversary (or: be made by satan to desire to have more than other folks; be overreached by the adversary so as to desire personal advantage), for we do not continue being without intimate and experiential knowledge (or: we are not still ignorant, unaware or without gnosis) of the effects and results from its directing our minds.


12.  Now on coming (or: going) into Troas – [proceeding] into Christ's good news (message of goodness, ease and wellness which is the Anointing), there also having been opened up, and still standing open, a door to and for me, within [the] Lord [= Christ or Yahweh] (or: by me, in union with the Master and Owner)

13.  I had not had a release (or: a relaxing; a letting flow; a relief) in (or: by; to; for; with) my spirit (or: inner breath; attitude) regarding my continuing not to find Titus, my brother, but instead, on sending off arrangements for myself among them and bidding them farewell, I went off into Macedonia.


14.  Now grace and favor [are] in, with and by God – in, by and with the One constantly causing us to triumph (or: progressively leading us in a triumphal procession) at all times, within and in union with the Christ (the Anointed One; = the Messiah), and progressively (or: habitually) setting in clear light (manifesting) the fragrance (aroma; odor; perfume) of His intimate knowledge (or: of the experience of intimacy and insight which has its source in knowing Him; or: the knowledge and gnosis which is Him) through us in every place,

15.  because within (or: by) God, we continuously exist being Christ's sweet fragrance (or: because we are an aroma of well-being for God which has it source in Christ; or: because by God we continue being an odor of ease, and a smell of goodness, which is Christ) within and among those being progressively delivered (habitually rescued; continuously made whole and returned to their original state and condition) – yet also within and among those being progressively loosed-away (or: habitually destroying themselves; or: repeatedly being lost):

16.  to (in; for; with) these [latter ones], a stench from out of Death, [leading] into death (or: from the midst of [one] death on into [another, or, more] death); yet to (in; for; with) those [former ones] a fragrance from out of Life, [leading] into life (or: from out of the midst of [one Life] on into [another, or, more] life).  So who [is] adequate, sufficient or qualified [in facing or approaching] toward these matters?

17.  For we are not – as the majority [are] – ones performing as hucksters in shameful traffic for unworthy gain, constantly peddling and marketing God's message (God's thought and idea; the Word of God; God's Logos), but to the contrary, we are constantly and habitually speaking as from out of the midst of that which is decided about when viewing in clear sunlight – and further, as from out of the midst of God; down within, in union with, and in the place of, God – within Christ! (or: but in contrast, we are progressively speaking in an Anointing – as [being] forth from God [and] in God’s presence!)




1.  Are we beginning again to continue commending ourselves (giving ourselves a standing together with [you folks]) as if we, like some, now need letters of recommendation to you, or from you?

2.  You yourselves are and continue being our letter – being one having been written (inscribed; imprinted; engraved) within your hearts [other MSS: our hearts]; one progressively being experientially known and continuously read (or: periodically recognized and experienced again) by all people (mankind)

3.  because you are and continue being those continuously set in clear light and progressively manifested: Christ's letter (a letter whose source is Christ, and which is Christ), being one dispensed in attending service by us, being one having been written (inscribed; imprinted; engraved), not in black (= not with ink), but rather, by (or: in; with) God's Spirit: One continuously living (or: in a Breath-effect which has its origin in God, Who is constantly living); not in stone tablets (or: on tablets composed of stone), but rather within tablets which are hearts made of flesh (or: on tablets in hearts composed of flesh).


4.  Now through the Christ we continuously possess (or: So, by means of the Anointing we progressively have and hold) this sort of persuaded trust and faith-based confidence [directed and leading] toward God (or: face to face with God)

5.  not that we are competent (adequately enough; sufficiently qualified) from ourselves to logically evaluate or count anything as it were forth from out of ourselves – but to the contrary, our competency (adequacy; sufficiency; qualification) [is] forth from out of the midst of (having its source in) God,

6.  Who also adequately qualifies us (or: made us fit, competent and sufficient) [to be] attending servants and dispensers of an arrangement that is new in quality (or: pertaining to a new kind of covenant that has a different character and is fresh and effective) – not of [the] letter (or: not pertaining to the result of that which is written down; not having its source in the effect of a written text), but in contrast, of a Breath-effect (or: pertaining to the result of [the] Spirit; having its source in and being the effect of spirit and attitude), for the effect of letter habitually kills (or: the result of writing something into a text repeatedly puts away in death), yet the Spirit (or: the spirit; the breath-effect; the Attitude) continuously gives life (or: repeatedly makes alive; progressively forms life; habitually creates life)!


7.  Now since (or: if) the attending service of the Death (or: the dispensing of provision from death; the serving of provisions and support, which is the death) – being one that has been formed by a beaten impression of types and the outlines of patterns that exists as engravings within letters and the effects of written texts chiseled on stones – was birthed and came into existence within glory (in a manifestation which called forth praise and with a good reputation), so that the sons of Israel came to be continuously unable (or: habitually having no power) to intently gaze into the face of Moses, because of the glory and manifestation which came from his face – which [glory] was being progressively unemployed so as to be brought down to having no work, to be ineffective and nullified –

8.  how shall not rather the attending service and dispensing of the provision of the Spirit (or: which has its source in the Breath-effect; marked by, pertaining to and being the effect of the spirit and attitude) continue being within glory (existing in the midst of a manifestation which calls forth praise; being centered on and in union with a good reputation and with imagination)?

9.  For since (or: if) the attending service and dispensing of the corresponding evaluations and commensurate decisions which follow the pattern (or: separations for condemnation; judgments which are down-decisions against folks) [had] glory, to a much greater degree does the attending service and the dispensing of the fairness and equity in rightwised relationships (or: righteousness from covenantal inclusion: that which corresponds to the Way pointed out, and which turns us in the right direction) progressively surround and continuously exceed in glory (or: habitually overflow with a manifestation which calls forth praise and brings a good reputation)!

[comment: it would seem that Paul is casting the Law as a dispenser of condemnation, and is contrasting that to the Good News – casting this latter as a dispenser of “righteousness” and a servant for folks being turned in the right direction]

10.  In fact, even that which had been made glorious, [by comparison] has not been glorified so as to now be glorious – in this respect: on account of the transcending glory which is constantly surpassing [that] and progressively over-casting [us].

11.  You see, since that which was being progressively unemployed and brought down to doing no work – even being made ineffective and nullified – [came] through glory, to a much greater extent is the continuously remaining one (the dwelling, abiding and enduring one) [existing] within the midst of glory.


12.  Therefore, progressively possessing (having and holding) an expectation (or: expectant hope) such as this, we habitually use much freedom of speech and bold lack of reserve (or: are constantly telling it all with absolute unreservedness, based upon our citizenship), unlike Moses.

13.  He kept on putting a head-covering (veil) upon his face so that the sons of Israel were not to gaze intently into the purposed and destined goal (the end; the result; the termination; the fruition) of that which was being progressively unemployed and brought down to doing no work and being made ineffective and nullified.

14.  But further, the results of their mental conceptions, intellectual workings and thought processes were petrified (made to be a stony concretion; were hardened and made callous [note: the word became a medical term for being covered with thick skin]), for until this very day the same head-covering (veil) continues remaining (dwelling; abiding) upon the reading of the old covenant (arrangement; thorough placement) – it [i.e., the reading of the old, or the old covenant itself] continues not being uncovered or unveiled – because it [i.e., the old covenant and arrangement] continues being progressively and fully unemployed and brought down to doing no work and being made useless, ineffective and nullified within Christ (or: = the old arrangement and covenant is nullified in union with [the] Anointing, and in the midst of Christ).

15.  Still furthermore, until today, whenever Moses should be repeatedly read [e.g., in the synagogue], a head-covering (veil) continues lying upon their heart (= the innermost being of the group).

16.  Yet whenever the time should be reached when it [= the heart] would (or: can; may; should; or: shall at some point) twist and turn upon, so as to face toward, [the] Lord [= Christ],

"the head-covering (veil) is by habit progressively taken from around [it]."

[note: a quote of Ex. 34:34 LXX, where Moses would enter in to speak with Yahweh; the same act was performed by the husband, on the bride, after the wedding ceremony]


17.  Now the Lord [= Christ or Yahweh] continuously exists being the Spirit (or: Yet the Breath-effect is the Lord), so where [the] Lord's Breath-effect (Spirit; Attitude) [blows, there is] freedom (or: and so in the place in which the Breath-effect – the Spirit – which is [the] Lord [= Christ or Yahweh] [blows], liberty [comes]).


18.  But we all, ourselves – having a face that has been uncovered and remains unveiled [note: as with Moses, before the Lord, Ex. 34:34] – being folks who by a mirror are continuously observing, as ourselves, the Lord's [= Yahweh's or Christ's] glory (or: being those who progressively reflect – from ourselves as by a mirror – the glory of [our] Owner), are presently being continuously and progressively transformed into the very same image, from glory into glory – in accord with and exactly as – from [the] Lord's Breath-effect (or: from [the] Spirit and Attitude of [the] Lord [= Christ or Yahweh]).                                                                        

[comment: considering the context of this chapter, this may refer to the transformation from glory of Moses, into the glory of Christ; or, it may be speaking of a from time to time transfiguration from the glory of humanity into the glory of the Anointing, on an individual basis]




1.  Because of this – while continuously possessing (having and holding) this attending service and dispensing of provision – correspondingly as we were mercied (shown mercy), we do not habitually behave with a bad attitude, or perform in a worthless manner, or act from out of a mood or motive that is poor in quality, or, become discouraged.

2.  To the contrary, we speak-away from ourselves (or: spurn; renounced; disowned) the hidden things pertaining to the shame (or: whose source is [our] shame; that result in dishonorable conduct or bring disgrace), not habitually walking around (= living our lives) in craftiness (or: in union with the capability for every work; within readiness to do anything), neither constantly diluting or adulterating God's message (God's thought and idea; the Word of God), but rather, in a manifestation of the Truth and by a setting of the Reality in clear Light, we are progressively placing ourselves together in addressing every conscience of mankind (or: commending ourselves toward every human conscience), in God's sight (= before God).


3.  Now if the good news coming from us (or: our message of goodness, ease and wellness) continues being covered from having been veiled with a head-covering, it continues being thus covered within the midst of and among those on their way to ruin (being progressively lost; repeatedly loosing-away so as to be undone; or: destroying themselves),

4.  within and among which folks the God of this age (or: the God who owns this indefinite time-period; the God Who is in relationship with this eon) blinds (or: deprived of the ability to see) the effects of the intellects and mental powers (or: the results of directing the mind to something) of those without faith (of the un-trusting ones; of the unbelieving and disloyal), [leading them] into the [situation that] the shining forth of light and the illumination of (or: the beaming forth of enlightenment from) the good news of the glory of the Christ (or: of the message of goodness, ease and wellness whose source is the glory of the Anointed One; of the glad tidings pertaining to the manifestation which calls forth praise to the [Messiah]) Who continuously exists being God's image (a resemblance and likeness of [Concordant Text adds: the unseen; the invisible] God) would not shine forth as the dawn to irradiate them.

5.  For you see, we are not constantly preaching (proclaiming; heralding) ourselves, but rather, Christ Jesus [as] Lord (or: [the] Anointed Jesus, [the] Lord, Master and Owner; or: = [the] Lord Jesus [as the] Messiah), yet ourselves [as] your slaves, because of Jesus,

6.  because the God suddenly saying (or: the God Who once was saying), "Light will shine forth (give light as from a torch; gleam) from out of the midst of darkness (dimness and shadiness; gloom and the absence of daylight)!" [is] the One who shines forth within the midst of our hearts, with a view to illumination of the intimate and experiential knowledge of God's glory – in a face of Christ

(or: [is] He Who gives light in union with our hearts, [while] facing toward an effulgence and a shining forth which is an intimate knowing of the praise-inducing manifestation whose source and origin is God, and which is God, [while] in union with face to face presence of Christ [other MSS: Jesus Christ]).


7.  Now we presently and continuously hold (have and possess) this treasure within containers (jars; pots; vessels; equipment) made of baked clay [e.g., pottery; bone ware] so that the transcendence of the power may habitually originate its existence in God – and not from out of us (or: the over-cast of ability can be that which is God – and not of us; or: the overwhelming which comes from the Power would exist with the character and quality of God – and not from what characterizes us)!

8.  We are people being constantly pressed [as grapes] on every [side] (or: squeezed and constricted within the midst of everything; given affliction, oppression and tribulation by everyone), but yet not constantly confined by a narrow space or a tight place so as to be restricted or hemmed in (or: = not cramped beyond movement); we are those being repeatedly made to be without resources, a place to walk or a means for conveyance (or, as a middle: we are habitually at a loss about things, in doubt and perplexed), but yet not continuously caused to be living utterly without resources or absolutely with no way out or place to walk or means for conveyance (or, middle voice: but still, we are not continually living at a total loss, being in complete doubt, being greatly perplexed or in utmost despair);

9.  we are folks being constantly pursued and persecuted, but yet not habitually left in the lurch, being forsaken down within some situation; we are those being repeatedly thrown down, but yet not continuously caused to fall apart (be loosed-away into ruin; be undone so as to be destroyed)

10.  at all times continuously carrying around (or: bearing about) among the body Jesus' being put to death (or: within [our] body the deadening, deadness and state of death, which comes from Jesus; or: within the midst of the body the dying associated with Jesus; or: the dying which is Jesus, in union with the body), to the end that the life, also, of Jesus (or: so that also the life which comes from and is Jesus; or: so that Jesus' life) can (or: could; may; would) be set in clear light and manifested, within our body (or: in the midst of the body, which is us)!

11.  For we, ourselves – the continuously living ones – are ever being repeatedly handed over into death (or: = continuously delivered into life-threatening experiences) – because of Jesus – to the end that the life, also, of Jesus (or: so that also the life which comes from and is Jesus; or: so that Jesus' life) can (may; could; would) be set in clear light and manifested – within our mortal flesh!

12.  So then (or: Consequently), the Death is repeatedly and progressively operating and inwardly working within us, yet that Life [is constantly operative] within you folks.

13.  Now continuously possessing (having and holding) that faith's very Breath-effect and the same Spirit of fidelity (or: the Spirit which itself is the Trust; or: the spirit and attitude which itself comes from the Faithfulness [of Christ]), corresponding to that which has been written,

"I trust and am faithful, therefore I speak (or: I believed and was loyal, [and] for this reason I spoke)," [Ps. 116:10]

we ourselves, also, are constantly faithful and loyal, habitually trusting and progressively believing; therefore we also keep on speaking,

14.  having seen, and now knowing, that the One at one point arousing and raising Jesus [other MSS: the Lord Jesus] will also repeatedly arouse and raise us up together with Jesus [other MSS: through Jesus], and will continue making us stand alongside (placing us beside; positioning us parallel, [for disposal]; setting us by, [for support]), together with you folks,

15.  for you see, all things [are] (the whole – everything – [is]) because of you folks, to the end that the grace (the boon and influence of gracious favor, joyous kindness and goodwill) – increasing and becoming more than enough through the greater part (the majority) of the people – can (should; would) cause the benefits of grace (or: the wellness of grace; or: the attitude of gratitude; or: the expression of thanksgiving) to be surrounding in superabundance, [leading] into God's glory (or: [proceeding] into the praise-inducing manifestation of God)!


16.  For this reason we do not habitually behave with a bad attitude, or perform in a worthless manner, or act from out of a mood that is poor in quality, or become discouraged.  But to the contrary, even if (or: since also) our outside person (or: outer humanity) is being progressively wasted away (is constantly being decayed and brought to ruin and corruption), certainly our inside [person] (= inner humanity or self) is day by day (or: from day to day; on a daily basis) being progressively made new again (or: renewed) in kind and quality so as to have a different character that is fresh and effective.

17.  So you see, the momentary light [aspect or character] (or: lightness) of the pressure and squeezing (the affliction, oppression and tribulation) is progressively working down in us a corresponding and consecutively transcending eonian weight of glory

(or: is repeatedly producing for us a heavy burden of glory, down from one over-casting on into another over-cast, each of which pertains to the Age; or: is now accomplishing with us an according, age-lasting weight of a good reputation – [each] a transcending one [leading] into [another] transcending one; or: is continuously effecting in us – on the level of “surpassing leading into surpassing” – a weight which has the quality of the realm of [Messiah's] Age, and which belongs to a manifestation which calls forth praise),

18.  while we are not constantly fixing our gaze on or carefully noting the things that are being constantly seen or repeatedly observed, but rather, [we are continuously looking at] those things not being constantly seen or repeatedly observed, because the things being constantly seen and observed [are] for a season (temporary; set toward a certain situation; transient), but those things not being habitually seen or observed pertain to and have their source in the Age ([are] eonian; [continue] age-lasting).




1.  For we have seen, and thus know, that if our house, of the tabernacle which is pitched on the land, would at some point be dismantled (or: that whenever our house, which is this tent upon the earth, should be loosed down), we constantly have (continuously hold; presently possess) a structure (a building) forth from out of the midst of God: an eonian house (a house having the qualities and character which pertain to the Age; a house for the ages) – not made by hands – resident within the heavens (or: in union with the atmospheres).

2.  For you see, even within this one we are continuously groaning, utterly longing and constantly yearning to fully enter within and to clothe upon ourselves (to dress upon ourselves) our dwelling-house (habitation) – the one [made] out of heaven (or: the one from, or made of, atmosphere; the [dwelling-house, or habitation] from out of the midst of [the] sky)

3.  since, in fact, also being folks at some point entering within and clothing ourselves (or: being dressed, also), we shall not continue (or: proceed) being found naked.

4.  For we also, being (continually existing) within the tent, are continuously groaning, being the ones constantly weighed down (burdened).  Upon which [situation] we are not wanting to go out from (to unclothe; to strip; to undress) but rather to fully enter within and to add clothing upon ourselves, to the end that the mortal (or: this mortal thing) may be drunk down and swallowed under (or: by) The Life.


5.  Now the One working this down, producing and fashioning us into this very [situation is] God, the One giving to us the pledge and guarantee (the earnest deposit, the security and the first installment) of the Breath-effect (or: which is the Spirit and the Attitude).


6.  Being, then, at all times and always courageous and of cheerful confidence, and having seen and thus knowing that continuously staying at home (dwelling within the district of our own people) within the body we are continually exiles, away from the Lord's home (we are out of the Lord's district)

7.  – for we are habitually walking about (= living our lives) through faithfulness and trust (or: faith; [His] loyalty) not through perception of the appearance of external form –

8.  yet we are constantly courageous and of cheerful confidence, even continuously delighting and thinking it good to a greater extent (with exceeding preference) to be away from home (to be out of the district), forth from out of the body, and to be staying at home (to be dwelling in the district) [with orientation] toward, and face to face with, the Lord [= Christ or Yahweh].


9.  Therefore we are constantly loving the value (or: ambitious for the honor), also – whether staying at home (dwelling within the district) or being away from home (out of the district) – to constantly be folks [that are] well-pleasing to Him (that give satisfaction for Him),

10.  for it continues (or: is repeatedly) necessary for us – the all (= the whole of humanity) – to be manifested in front of Christ's elevated place (a step, platform, stage, or place ascended by steps to speak in public assembly in the center of a city; or: = an official bench of a judge or public official), to the end that each one may himself take into kindly keeping, for care and provision (= be responsible for), the things [done] through (or: by means of; or: [during our] passing through [with]) the body – [oriented] toward what things he practices (or: she accomplished), whether good or bad, whether serviceable or inefficient, whether fair or foul, whether capable or careless.

(or: for you see that it continues binding for us all to be set in light so as to be clearly seen in the presence of the judgment seat which is Christ, so that each should keep and provide for the things performed through the body, with a view to, and face to face with, what things [were practiced], whether virtuous or vile).


11.  Being, then, folks having seen and thus knowing the Lord's fear (or: the respectful fear from, and which is, the Owner and Master [= Christ]; the respect and reverence pertaining to or coming from [Yahweh]), we are constantly persuading mankind (habitually convincing people; one after another making humans confident).  So we have been, and thus remain, manifested (set in the light so as to be clearly seen) in God (by God; for God; to God; with God), yet I am also continually expecting (or: hoping expectantly) to have been manifested within your consciences.

12.  We are not again recommending ourselves to you (or: making ourselves stand together for you), but rather, continue giving you a starting point and an occasion (a base of operations and an incentive) from the effect of boasting over and being proud of us [other MSS: you] – to the end that you folks may constantly possess (have and hold) [a position; a response; a defense] toward those continuously boasting in a face (in presentation; in personal appearance; in a surface facade) and not in [the] heart.


13.  For whether we are beside ourselves (standing without; = out of our minds), [it is] for God (in God; to God; by God; with God); or whether we remain sane (of sound mind), [it is] for you (to you; with you) folks,

14.  for you see, Christ's love (urge for accepting reunion) continuously holds us together.

[We are] deciding (discerning; judging) this: that [some MSS add: since] One Person (or: Man) died over [the situation of] all mankind (or: for the sake of all); consequently all people died (or: accordingly, then, all humanity died).

15.  And further, He died over all humanity (over [the situation] of, and for the sake of all) to the end that those living may (or: could; would) no longer live for themselves (to themselves; in themselves; by themselves), but rather for (or: in; by; to; with) the One dying and then being awakened and raised up over them (over their [situation]; for their sakes),

16.  so that we, from the present moment (or: from now) [on], have seen and thus know (or: perceive; or: are acquainted [with]) no one on the level of (or: in the sphere of; in correspondence to) flesh (= the estranged human nature; = the self enslaved to the System), if even we have intimately, by experience, known Christ ([the] Anointed One) on the level of flesh (or: = in the sphere of estranged humanity; or: = in correspondence to a self oriented to the System), nevertheless we now (in the present moment) no longer continue [thus] knowing [Him or anyone].

17.  Consequently, since someone [is] within Christ (or: So that if anyone [is] in union with [the] Anointed One; or: And as since a Certain One [was] in Christ), [there is] a new creation (or: [it is] a framing and founding of a different kind; [he or she is] an act of creation having a fresh character and a new quality): the original things (the beginning [situations]; the archaic and primitive [arrangements]) passed by (or: went to the side).  Consider!  New things have come into existence (have been birthed; or: It has become new things; or: He has been birthed and now exists being ones of a different kind, character and quality). [note: cf Rev. 21:5]

18.  Yet further, all these things [are] (or: the Whole [is]) forth from out of the midst of God – the One transforming us to be completely other [than we were]

(or: bringing us into another place or state of being; changing us to correspond with other [perceptions and conceptions]; altering us to be conformed to another [person]; changing us from enmity to friendship; reconciling us)

in Himself (or: with Himself; by Himself; to Himself; for Himself), through Christ, and giving to us the attending service of, and the dispensing from, the transformation [for folks] to be other [than before]

(or: the change into another [position]; the changing to correspond with other [situations; perceptions]; the alteration to be another [person]; the change from enmity to friendship; the reconciliation),

19. as that God was existing within Christ (God was and continued being in union with [the] Anointed One) progressively and completely transforming [the] aggregate of humanity (or: world) to be other [than it is]

            (or: progressively bringing [the] ordered System into another level or state; repeatedly changing [the] universe to correspond with other [conditions; perceptions]; progressively altering [the] ordered arrangement of culture, religions, economy and government to be in line with another one; habitually and progressively changing [the] secular realm [of humanity] from enmity to friendship; reconciling [the] world [of mankind])

in Himself, to Himself, for Himself and by Himself, not accounting to them (not putting to their account; not logically considering for them; not reasoning in them) the results and effects of their falls to the side (their trespasses and offenses), even placing within us the Word (the Idea; the Reason; the message) of the corresponding transformation to otherness

(or: the full alteration; the change from enmity to friendship; the conciliation).


20.  Over [the situation] in regard to Christ, then (or: Then for Christ's sake), we are elders of God, performing as ambassadors from God, as [Him] continually calling alongside to give comfort and relief (performing as a Paraclete) through us.  We are constantly begging and urgently asking, on behalf of Christ (or: for Christ's sake): "Be fully transformed in, be correspondingly altered by, be changed from an enemy to be a friend with, be reconciled to, and be altered to be another [person] by, God!"

            (or: "You folks must be completely exchanged in God; or: Be conciliated to, for and with God!"),

21.  for you see, He made (or: formed; makes) the One not at any point knowing failure (sin; error; mistake) by intimate experience [to take the place of; to be] failure over us and our [situation] (or: He constructed [as] a sin [offering], for our sake, the Person who was not at that point having an experiential knowledge of missing the target or making a mistake), to the end that we may be birthed (come into an existence being; come to be) God's just and rightwising act of eschatological deliverance (or: righted and liberated relationships of equity, fairness and justice in the Way pointed out, and be participants in the new covenant from God; expressions of the well-ordered living of the way it should be, which is God), within Him and in union with Him.




1.  Now we, habitually (or: constantly) working together, are continuously calling you folks alongside to aid, comfort, direct and encourage you to not accept and receive God's grace into an empty [vessel; situation; way of life],

2.  for He continues saying,

"At an acceptable season (or: In an appropriate situation; For an agreeable kairos) I fully hear and respond in regard to you, and within a day of deliverance (on a day of health, restoration and salvation), at your cry for help, I run to give aid to you (I run with help for you)." [Isa. 49:8]

Consider!  [It is] now (at this moment) an especially acceptable season (a fitting situation well-directed toward acceptance; a fertile moment of ease and face to face reception)!

Consider!  [It is] now (at this moment) a day of deliverance (of health, rescue, safety, salvation and restoration to the wholeness of the original state and condition)!


3.  [We are] habitually giving no one a cause for striking [a foot] against something so as to stumble (or: a reason or occasion for making a cutting attack toward someone) not in even one thing – so that the attending service and dispensing of provision would not at any point be found flawed so as to be discredited,

4.  but to the contrary, in the midst of every [situation] and in every [way], [we are] continuously placing and standing ourselves together, and recommending ourselves, as God's attending servants who dispense provisions: within the midst of much patient endurance and steadfast remaining under [the situation] for support; in compressed squeezings, pressures, afflictions and tribulations; within the midst of constraining necessities and compulsions; within tight spots that cramp, restrict and hem us in;

5.  in [the receiving of] blows or beatings [as with a rod] or lashings; within prisons (or: times of being in custody); in the midst of unsettled situations (conditions of disorder; turbulences; political instabilities; riots); within toilsome, vexing and exhausting labors; in sleepless nights (or: vigils); within times without food (or: fasts; times of hunger).

6.  [We have served and dispensed] with pureness (or: centered in [a life of] purity); in personally experienced knowledge; with forbearing patience (in taking a long time before becoming emotional or rushing with passion); with useful kindness; in a set-apart (holy) spirit (or: within the midst of [the] Holy Spirit; within a hallowed breath-effect; in a set-apart attitude); centered in, and with, uncritical love (or: love that is free from the influence of separating for evaluation; love that is not based on making distinctions, fault-finding or judging)

7.  with and in a message of Truth (or: centered in a thought, idea and Word of Reality); within God's power and ability; through means of the tools and instruments (or: weapons; utensils; implements) of and from the liberated, rightwised behavior and relationships with the fairness and equity of the Way pointed out in new covenant participation – on the right hand and on the left;

8.  through a good reputation, and [through] dishonor (or: through means of glory and a praise-inducing manifestation, as well as [through] absence of value or respect); through words of ill omen and words of good omen (or: through bad reports and defamation, and [through] good reports and praise); as wanderers and yet real (or: as [considered being] men who deceive and lead astray, and yet [being] true);

9.  as continuing being unknown (nonentities) and yet constantly being ones fully recognized; as being those continually or progressively withering and dying, and yet look and consider: we continue living; as being those progressively being disciplined, trained and educated as young boys, and yet not being ones regularly delivered to death;

10.  as those being repeatedly made anxious, sad, vexed, distressed or in pain, but yet ever rejoicing; as constantly being people that are poor, destitute and living as beggars, but yet repeatedly making many rich (or: enriching many folks); as those possessing (having or holding) nothing, and yet continuously possessing all things to the full (or: habitually having and retaining everything in a firm grasp; or: repeatedly holding fast to all folks)!


11.  Our mouth has been opened up and continues open toward you, O Corinthians: our heart has been broadened and is now enlarged.

12.  You folks are not being constantly restricted into some limited place within us (= in our hearts), but you are being repeatedly squeezed into restrictions in your own inner sensitivities and deep feelings (within your interior organs).

13.  Now I am speaking as to children: [let's have] the same fair exchange of recompense.  You folks also be broadened and enlarged!


14.  Do not of yourself continue (or: Stop) becoming yoked differently (or: unevenly yoked; yoked with ones of a different sort) with folks without faith (or: by those without trust; to unbelievers; with disloyal people), for, what mutual holding (having-with: sharing; partnership; communion; membership) [have] rightwised living and lawlessness (or: fairness/equity, and a lack of following rules; [covenant membership] in right relationship which accords with the Way pointed out, and inequity or wrong which come from violation of law), or what common existing (participation; partnership; sharing) [is] in light [directed] toward, or face to face with, darkness (or: [is there] for light with dimness from murky obscurity in the realm of shadows)?

15.  And what joining of voice (concord, agreement and harmony of sound) has Christ [when faced] toward Belial [Hebrew word for "worthlessness"]?  Or what part for one full of faith and trust (or: portion in a believer) [corresponds] with one who lacks faith (an unbeliever; one who is not trustworthy or loyal)?

16.  Now what mutual deposit (or: concurrence or agreement arrived by group decision) [does] God's Temple [have] with idols (or: external forms or appearances; or: phantoms of the mind; unsubstantial images or forms)?  For, you see, we [other MSS: you folks] continuously exist being (we/you are) a temple of [the] living God, just as God said,

             "I will proceed to make My home and will continue walking about within and among

             them (= I will habitually reside, as in a house, and live My life within and among them), and

             I will proceed existing being (or: I will continue being) their God, and they will proceed

             existing being (or: will continue being) My people." [Lev. 26:12; etc.]

17.  On which account [the] Lord [= Yahweh] says,

             "Instantly go forth from out of their midst and be instantly marked off by boundaries

             so as to be defined and restricted – and do not continue (or: stop) touching what is

             unclean (= ceremonially defiled), [Isa. 52:11] and then I, Myself, will constantly admit

             you folks and receive you into [Myself; My family], [Ezk. 20:41]

             18.        "and so I will proceed into being a Father for you, and you will proceed in being (or:

                          will continue being) sons and daughters in Me (by Me; to Me; for Me), says [the] Lord [=

                          Yahweh] the All-strong (Almighty)." [2 Sam. 7:14; Isa. 43:6]

1.  Therefore, beloved ones, continuing in possessing (having and holding) these – the [aforementioned] promises – we can and should cleanse ourselves off from every stain, pollution or ceremonial defilement of flesh (= the estranged human nature; = a self oriented to the System) and of spirit (or: from flesh as well as from a spirit or attitude; or: pertaining to an alienated persona, or even to an attitude bound to the System), while progressively bringing the state and condition of being set-apart (holiness) to a successful completion (or: in continuing to perform dedicated consecration amidst its destined goal), centered in a reverence from God (or: in union with respect, with regard to God; in God’s fear; [p46 reads: in God's love]).




2.  You folks make room (create space; set up an environment) for us!  We wrong no one (We at no point related to anyone unfairly or contrary to the Way pointed out; We act unjustly to no one).  We spoil no one (We caused no one to decay or be corrupted).  We have more than no one (or: We overreached no one so as to have an advantage over him or her).

3.  I am not now speaking with a view toward condemnation (a decision to bring [you] down), for I have said before that you folks continuously exist (or: are) within our hearts – into the [situations of both] to die together and to be continuously living together!

4.  [There is] much freedom of speech, frankness, outspokenness and boldness in me, toward you folks.  [There is] much boasting in me, over (in regard to) you!  I have been filled full so that I am stuffed with relief, encouragement and comfort – I continue overflowing from the progressive flood of superabundance which encircles me in joy – which tops all our pressure and tribulation (or: by the joy upon every squeezing, ordeal, affliction and oppression).

5.  For even upon our coming into Macedonia, our flesh (= physical selves, or inner natural beings) had not had a let-up or slackening (a release so as to be at ease), but to the contrary, among all people and in every situation and manner [we were] ones being continuously pressed, rubbed together and oppressed: outside, fights and battles; inside, fears!

6.  Nevertheless God, the One continuously performing as a Paraclete for the low ones (i.e., repeatedly calling the humbled and downhearted to [His] side to give them aid, relief, ease, comfort and encouragement), paracleted (comforted, assisted and encouraged) us in the arrival and presence of Titus,

7.  yet, not only in his presence, but further, also within the relief, comfort and encouragement (the influence of a paraclete) in which he was paracleted (comforted and encouraged) upon you folks [i.e., over your situation], repeatedly reporting back to us your longing (strong and anxious love with fond regret), your grievous expression of anguish and remorse, your fiery zeal over me – with result that it caused me rather to rejoice –

8.  because even if I made you sad and anxious (or: cause you pain and sorrow) in the letter, I am now not regretting or changing my purpose of conduct – even if I had been regretting and altering my purpose of conduct – for I see (observe) that that letter made you sad and anxious (pained and sorrowful), even if for an hour.

9.  Now I continue rejoicing – not that I was made sad or anxious (pained or sorrowful) – but rather, that you were made sad and anxious [leading you] into a change in thinking and frame of mind, for you were saddened and made anxious down from and in correspondence to God, to the end that you could in nothing be disadvantaged through loss, injury or damage due to (or: from out of) us.

10.  For you see, the anxiety, sadness and pain down from, in the sphere of, in line with and in correspondence to God continuously works, habitually effects and progressively produces a change in thinking and frame of mind: [in turn, leading] into a deliverance and wholeness of health (a rescue and restoration to the original state and realm; salvation) void of regret and without change in purpose.  Yet the anxiety, sadness, pain and sorrow which belongs to the world (that comes from secular society, and the organized System of religion, culture, economy and government) is continuously working down the production of death (or: is in line with repeatedly and progressively bringing about death).

11.  For consider (or: look)!  This very thing – the [experience for] you to be made sad and anxious down from and in accord with God – to what extent it accomplished (produces; worked down and effects) [qualities] of haste to earnest diligence in you folks; but further, verbal defense (apologetics); but still further, indignant displeasure [with the whole situation]; yet further, fear and respect!; but then, longing (strong and anxious love with fond regret); on the other hand, fiery zeal and enthusiasm; yes, in fact, righting of what is wrong (maintaining justice out of rightwised relationships from the fairness of the Way pointed out) – within the midst of everything, in every respect and among all people, placing yourselves and standing together to continuously exist being pure in this practice-effect (or: results of the matter).

12.  Consequently, even if I write (or: although I wrote) to you, [it is] not on account of the one doing wrong (behaving contrary to the Way pointed out; acting unjustly or injuriously; the offender), nor either on account of the one being wronged (being treated unfairly or unjustly; being injured; the victim), but rather on account of the [opportunity] to set in clear light and manifest to you folks your haste to earnest and diligent care – that which [was] over us and on our behalf – in God's sight.

Because of this we have been, and remain, encouraged and comforted (we have received the influence of a paraclete).


13.  Yet, in addition to our encouragement and comfort, we rejoice still more abundantly due to the joy of Titus, because his spirit has been rested up and continues refreshed by all of you folks (or: from you all),

14.  because if I have made any boast to him, over you folks, I have not been brought down in shame or disgrace, but to the contrary, as we speak all things in truth and reality, thus also our boasting on Titus came to be truth (was birthed into reality).

15.  Also, his innermost feelings and compassions (internal organs; intestines) are progressing more abundantly into you folks, while progressively calling back to mind the submissive hearing and humble obedience of you all – as with fear and trembling (or: respect and attentive concern) you received him.

16.  I continue rejoicing, that in everything I am constantly with good courage and confidence in you – that I can depend and rely on you folks.




1.  Now, brothers (= fellow believers and family members; = members of the body), we are continuing to make known to you the joyous favor from, and which has the character and quality of, God (or: the grace which is God), which has been given and now continues as a gift among the called-out folks (or: in union with the called-out communities) of Macedonia,

2.  how that within the midst of much testing and proving which came through pressure, tribulation, oppression and affliction, the superabundance of their joy – also contrasted with the depth of their destitution (poverty, and/or life as beggars) – superabounds into the wealth (or: riches) of their singleness [of heart and purpose] and simplicity (un-complexity; or: openness and sincerity in generous sharing with others),

3.  because – I continue bearing witness and testifying that – corresponding to [their] power and in accord with [their] ability, and even beyond [their] actual power and ability, [they are] those who act spontaneously and voluntarily from their own initiative,

4.  with much appeal and calling of us to their side to give us relief, assistance and encouragement, repeatedly and constantly begging of us the grace (or: the favor) and the common participation (partnership and sharing from common existence) of the attending service which pertains to the dispensing into the set-apart folks (the holy ones; the saints).

5.  And not according as we expected, but rather they gave themselves first to the Lord [= Christ or Yahweh; p46 & others read: God], and even (or: also) to us, through the effect of God's will and purpose,

6.  [leading] us to assist and encourage Titus, so that, just as he did before in the beginning, thus also he should fully finish and complete even this favor unto you folks (or: he should bring this grace to its goal: even into you people).

7.  But further, even as you folks continuously superabound within everything – in faith (or: trust; loyalty) and word (thought; idea; reason; message) and experiential knowledge, as well as with all haste to earnest diligence, and in the love from out of the midst of us [that is] within the midst of you [other MSS: the love from you [that is] within us] that you may be progressively superabounding in this grace, also.


8.  I am not now saying [this] down from some arrangement put upon [you], but still [I am] also continuing in testing and proving the legitimacy of the birth (or: the genuineness) of the love, which belongs to you, through means of the haste to earnest and diligent care from different folks.

9.  For you people continue knowing by experience the grace of Jesus Christ (or: the favor whose source and being is Jesus [the] Anointed), our Lord (Master; Owner), that although continuously existing being rich (wealthy), because of and for the sake of you folks He became destitute and led the life of a beggar, to the end that by and in the destitution and poverty of That One, you yourselves could (or: should; may; would) come to be rich (wealthy).


10.  And so, in this [testing and proving], I am now offering knowledge gained from my experience, for this [topic] is progressing to bring things together for you, to your benefit and expedience – you who from a year ago were first in making a beginning not only to do, but even to desire and purpose [it] –

11.  even so now, bring the doing to its goal (fully accomplish the performing and the producing), so that – even as the eagerness to will (or: the propensity to rush ahead to the purpose) thus also [may be] the accomplishing of the goal, from out of [your] possessions and holdings.

12.  You see, if the eagerness continues lying before [a person], [it is] well-embraced and very acceptable – in proportion to whatever one may normally possess (have and hold), not corresponding to what he does not normally have.

13.  For, you see, [the situation is] not that to (or: for; in; with) other folks [there is] a letting up with relief and ease, yet to (or: for; in; with) you folks [there is] pressure with tribulation, oppression and affliction (or: = hardship),

14. but to the contrary, out of the fairness and equity of equality within the present season (or: by an equalization in the current occasion and situation), your superabundance (or: your encompassing surplus-result) [can flow] into the lack resulting from the shortcoming of those folks (= offset their deficiency), keeping in mind that the superabundance (or: surplus-effect) of those folks could also at some point birth itself into the lack resulting from your shortcoming (= offset your deficiency), so that an equalizing can occur.

15.  [This is] just as it has been written,

"the person [who gathered] the great quantity did not have too much, and the person [who gathered] the small amount did not have too little." [Ex. 16:18]


16.  Now grace [is] in and with God (or: Yet favor [is] by God; or, perhaps: But thanks [be] to God) in (or: by; with) the One constantly imparting within the heart of Titus this very same haste and earnest, diligent care over you folks,

17.  because [Titus] indeed embraced and responded to the comfort, relief, assistance and encouragement (the influence of the Paraclete), and being inherently quicker to earnest diligence, spontaneously and of his own accord went forth to you folks.

18.  So we sent together with him the (or: his) brother whose full approval (praise and added applause) in connection with the good news (the message of goodness, ease and well-being) [has spread] in every direction through all the called-out folks (or: called-out communities)

19.  yet not only [this], but further, [he is] also one having had hands extended, spread wide and pulled tight [note: either, in love, or in "selecting" him] by the called-out folks, [being] our traveling companion within this grace and favor [other MSS: together with this grace] which is being progressively dispensed and constantly given in attending service by us [moving with a view] toward the Lord's glory (good reputation; manifestation which calls forth praise to Christ and Yahweh), and [to] a rushing forward with strong emotion and eagerness which pertains to us (or: toward our Owner's glory and propensity to eagerly rushing with strong feelings)

20.  [we] being those progressively ordering and arranging this for ourselves: [that] no one can find fault with us (or: may find flaws or defects in us) in connection with this ripe maturity which is being progressively dispensed in attending service by us.

21.  For we

"habitually give forethought for providing beautiful things, ideal [situations] and fine [insights] – not only in [the] Lord's [= Yahweh's] sight, but also in the sight of people (humans)." [Prov. 3:4 LXX]


22.  Now we send (or: sent) our brother, together with them, whom we often tested and proved as continually being quick to be earnest and diligent in many things, yet now much more quickly and with more earnest diligence, but with great confidence, which [he imparts] into you folks.

23.  So whether concerning Titus – my partner (person of common being and existence) and co-worker [dispensing] into you people – or whether our brothers (= fellow believers), [they are] those sent forth pertaining to the called-out folks: Christ's glory (or: [these are] emissaries and representatives who belong to the called-out communities – a good reputation for the Anointed One and a manifestation which brings Him praise).

24.  Therefore, show within [other MSS: be continuously being ones showing within] the display and demonstration of your love – and of our boasting over you – into the face (= presence, or persons) of the called-out folks (or: the called-out communities).




1.  For indeed, concerning the attending service and dispensing of provisions into the set-apart folks (the holy ones; the saints), it is superfluous for me to be writing to you folks.

2.  For I have seen, and thus know, your eagerness (fore-spiritedness; forward bent in passions and emotions) concerning which I am constantly boasting over you folks to [the] Macedonians – that "Achaia has prepared itself and stands ready since last year (from a year ago)," and your zeal stimulates the majority [of them].

3.  So I send the brothers (= fellow members of the Family), so that the effect of our boasting over you may not be made void (empty; to no purpose) in this respect (or: on this part), so that you may be folks who have prepared yourselves – just as I have been saying –

4.  lest by any means, if Macedonians should come with me and they should find you folks unprepared, we ourselves – not that we should proceed to mention you folks! – should be completely brought down in disgrace and be embarrassed in this underlying assumption (or: substructure) of boasting.

5.  Therefore I considered it compelling to call the brothers (= fellow believers; = Family) alongside and to urge them to the end that they should come unto you folks in advance and that they could thoroughly adjust, prepare and arrange in advance the blessing (= a bountiful gift; or: a eulogy; a word of goodness, ease and well-being) from you folks, which had been previously promised and was being fore-announced, [and for] this to continually be ready, thus: as a blessing (= a bountiful gift; or: a eulogy; word of goodness) and not as one who has advantage in having more (or: not as greed or the desire to have more; possibly: not as the result of a scheme of extortion).

6.  Now this [is the reality]: the person who is habitually sowing sparingly (in a limited way) will also continue reaping (or: harvesting) sparingly; and the person who is habitually sowing on [the basis of] good thoughts and words (or: with or for added blessings; or: bountifully; with things well and fully laid out and arranged for ease) will also continue reaping upon [those] good thoughts and words (or: with added blessings; or: bountifully; with things well laid out and arranged for added ease)

7.  each one [doing; giving] correspondingly (or: accordingly) as he has before chosen in (or: by) the heart, not from out of anxiety (sorrow; pain; distress) nor compulsion, for

            "God habitually and continuously loves a cheerful (merry) giver." [Prov. 22:8 LXX]


8.  Moreover, God is constantly able with continuous power to furnish all grace to surround and to make every favor superabound into you folks, to the end that, continuously having every ability in yourselves to ward things off and constantly holding all self-sufficiency and complete contentment at all times [and] within every [situation] and in union with every person, you can (or: may; should; would) continuously superabound into every good action and noble work,

9.  just as it stands written,

"He scattered abroad and widely disperses; He gives to the ones who work hard for their bread, and yet are poor; His fairness and equity (rightwised dealings and relationship which correspond to the Way pointed out; also = covenantal faithfulness) continuously remains and constantly dwells, on into the Age." [Ps. 112:9]

10.  Now the One habitually adding further supply and fully furnishing "seed to (or: for) the one habitually sowing (the constant sower) and bread unto eating (= for food)," will continue supplying and furnishing – He will even continue to multiply and give increase to fullness – your seed, and He will continue causing the offspring and produce (or: product) of your rightwised behavior (your fairness and equity in right relationships in the Way pointed out; also = covenant participation) to grow and increase (be enlarged; or: grow up and be amplified),

11.  being progressively enriched unto abundance within every person (or: in everything) [leading] into complete singleness [of purpose] and simplicity [of being] for all generosity (liberality), which constantly produces (works down; accomplishes) thanksgiving to God through our midst [or, with B: which repeatedly works in accord with God's ease of grace, instilling gratitude through the midst of us],

12.  because the attentive serving and dispensing of this public duty and service is not only repeatedly replenishing (aiming toward filling back up again) the needs (results of defaults; the effects of shortcomings, lacks or deficiencies) pertaining to the set-apart folks (the holy ones; the saints; or: the sacred [communities]), but further is also progressively superabounding (bringing excessive amounts) through many expressions of gratitude to God (or: by means of many examples of the goodness of grace in God)

13.  through the evidence which is shown by this attending service and dispensing: folks constantly glorifying God and praising His reputation because of (or: based upon) the subjoined, humble alignment, the supportive arrangement and the subjection in appended shelter – which is your accordance to the message and agreement in thought (and thus: your profession of saying the same thing), [showing] assent unto Christ's message of goodness, ease and well-being, as well as by [the] simplicity and generosity of the partnership of common-existence sharing unto them, and unto the midst of all people,

14.  even by their request over [the situation of] (or: on behalf of) you folks – from people constantly longing and yearning for you.  [It is] because of God's transcendent favor and surpassing grace [resting] upon you people –

15.  grace and joyous favor, in and by God, [superimposed] upon His free gift – which is a wonder beyond description (or: added to His indescribable gratuity)!




1.  Now I myself, Paul, am making a personal appeal in continuing to call you to my side to encourage and entreat you folks through Christ's gentle friendliness (mild kindness; tender meekness) and lenient reasonableness (or: considerateness with full probability for being suitable for a situation) I, who indeed [am] humble and lowly when face to face (= in person) among you, yet, being absent, am constantly showing courage and confidence unto you –

2.  and am requesting, [that] when being present, not to have a situation where I need to be bold and courageous with the confidence in which I am reasonably considering (or: counting on) to be daring upon certain folks: those constantly considering and counting us as folks [who] are habitually walking around (= living our lives; ordering our behavior) in correspondence and accord to flesh (= governed by principles of the human condition; or: = on the level of estranged humanity; or: = in line with a self that is in bondage to the System).

3.  For though habitually walking about and ordering our behavior within [the] flesh (= in a physical body; or: = in the human condition), we are not waging warfare (or: performing military service) in correspondence and accord to flesh (= on the level of estranged or enslaved humanity, or in line with human condition; or: = in the sphere of old covenant Jewish reasonings),

4.  for you see, the tools and weapons of our military service and warfare [are] not fleshly (= do not pertain to our human condition; [“are not the weapons of the Domination System” – Walter Wink]), but rather, [are] powerful ones and capable ones in God (or: by God), [focused] toward [the] pulling down (demolition) of effects of fortifications (or: strongholds; strongly entrenched positions [of the “Domination System” – Walter Wink, Engaging the Powers]),

5.  progressively tearing down and demolishing conceptions (concepts; the effects of thoughts, calculations, imaginations, reasonings and reflections) and every height (or: high position; high-effect) and lofty [attitude, purpose or obstacle] that is habitually lifting itself up against (or: elevating itself up on so as to put down) the intimate and experiential knowledge of God, and then taking captive every thought – one after another – and leading them prisoner into the hearing obedience of the Christ (or: the humble attentive listening, which comes from the Anointed One; or: the submissive paying attention, which is the Anointing),

6.  even continuously holding [them] in a ready state and prepared condition to support fairness and equity, while maintaining rightwised relationships from out of the Way pointed out, for every mishearing (or: hearing-aside; setting of our attention to the side; or: disobedience) whenever your hearing obedience may be made full (or: as soon as the humble attentive listening and submissive paying attention has been brought to full measure, from, and with regard to, you folks)!


7.  You folks constantly look at things according to [their] face (external appearance; = face value; = surface meaning).  If anyone has trusted so that he now continues persuaded with confidence for himself to exist belonging to Christ (or: in himself to be a possession of Christ, Christ being his source; or: in himself to be with the qualities of the Anointing), let him continue considering and reckoning this again upon himself: that just as he belongs to Christ and has the qualities of the Anointing, in this same way [do] we, also.

8.  For besides, if I should boast somewhat more excessively concerning our right out of Being and authority – which the Lord [= Christ or Yahweh] gives us, [leading] unto your upbuilding (your construction into being a house), not unto tearing down or demolition – I shall not be put to shame or be disgraced,

9.  so that I should not seem as ever to be terrifying you folks (or: as if to be constantly making you afraid) through the (or: [my]) letters.

10.  "Because," one person is [other MSS: they are] constantly saying, "the letters [are] indeed weighty and strong (or: = severe and violent), but the presence of [his] body [is] weak, and the message has been collected from out of nothing (or: and [his] expression has been scorned)."

11.  Let such a person take this into account, that the kind of person we are in word through letters, being absent, such also [are we], being present, in action.

12.  Of course we are not daring to classify ourselves among, nor compare or explain ourselves with, some of those setting themselves together for commendation.  But in fact they, themselves, are constantly measuring themselves among (or: within) themselves, and are repeatedly comparing themselves with themselves – they continue not comprehending or understanding!


13.  Now we ourselves will not boast into what is not measured (or: about the things that cannot be measured), but rather, corresponding to the measure of the measuring rod (rule; standard; canon; = sphere of allocated influence) which God divided and gives as a part to (in; for) us – of a measure (or: = sphere of influence) to reach even as far as upon you folks.

14.  Certainly we are not progressively overspreading (or: overstretching) ourselves – as if not being repeatedly reaching-on into you folks – for we advanced beforehand as far as even you people in the declaring of Christ's good news (or: the message of goodness, ease and wellness pertaining to and having its source in the Anointed One).

15.  No, we are not men habitually boasting into what is not measured [off for us]  – in labors (toils) belonging to other folks – but are continuously holding an expectation and having a hope of a progressively growing increase of your faith, trust and loyalty to be made great and enlarged within you (or: among and in union with you folks) in line with and corresponding to our measured-out range and area (= sphere of allocated influence) [leading] into abundance (being surrounded with excess),

16.  [increasing] into the [regions] beyond those of your area, to yourselves (or: to ourselves) cause the good news to be proclaimed – not in the midst of a measured-out range and area (= sphere of allocated influence) belonging to another – [and] to boast into things [that have been] prepared and made ready,

17.  so, “the one [among you] that is habitually boasting is to be habitually boasting in the Lord [= Christ or Yahweh]. [Jer. 9:24]

18.  So you see, the person constantly placing himself with others – so as to be commended – is not that one who is qualified or approved, but rather, he whom the Lord [= Christ or Yahweh] consistently includes and commends.




1.  I wish that you folks were continuing to put up with a little something of my thoughtlessness (or: unreasonableness; lack of consideration; foolishness; imprudence).  But in fact, you are also always patiently tolerant of me (or, as an imperative: Still further, be also patiently tolerant of me),

2.  for I continue with hot zeal (eager vehement passion) concerning you in (or: with; by) God's fervent zeal (an eager vehement passion which is God), because I myself joined you folks in marriage to one husband, to make a pure virgin (= unmarried girl) to stand alongside in the Christ.

3.  Yet I continue fearing lest somehow, as the serpent thoroughly deceived (or: seduces; fully deludes) Eve within its capability for every work (its cunning ability in all crafts and actions; its readiness to do anything), the results of directing your minds should be decayed (could be ruined; would be spoiled or corrupted) away from the singleness [of purpose] and simplicity [of being] – even the purity – which [focuses us] into the Christ (or: [leads] into the Anointing).

4.  For if, indeed, the person periodically coming is habitually preaching (heralding; proclaiming) another Jesus – whom we do not preach (or: did not herald and proclaim) or, [if] you folks are continuously receiving a different breath-effect (or: are repeatedly laying hold of a spirit or attitude that is different in kind and nature) which you did not receive, or a different “good-news” (a message of ease and wellness which is different in kind and character) which you did not welcome and accept, are you repeatedly holding back from [him] in an ideal way? (or: you folks are beautifully putting up with and tolerant of [it]! [other MSS: were you finely holding back from {it}?]).


5.  Now you see, I am habitually considering and counting myself to have been in nothing inferior to or deficient from those "very-overly [pretentious and condescending] emissaries (or: super-folks sent forth with a mission)."

            [note: Paul is probably referring to the Judaizers – those sent out from the Jews]

6. Yet even if [I am] non-professional (ordinary and unskilled) in word and expression – though certainly not in intimate and experiential knowledge and insight (the gnosis) – still, we are men manifesting light into you folks: in every situation [and] in all things (or: in every person – in union with and in the midst of all people; in every respect, among all folks).


7.  Or, do I make a mistake (or: did I commit a sin) [by] repeatedly humbling myself so that you folks can (or: may; would) be lifted up because I announce as good news a free gift – God's good news – to you (or: because without cost I declare a message of ease and wellness to you: God's message of goodness)?

8.  I encroached upon and took the goods of (or: rob; despoil) other called-out folks (or: groups), taking (or: receiving; getting) rations (provisions; subsistence pay) with a view toward the attending service and dispensing pertaining to you people.

9.  Further, being present and facing you, and being put in need (being made to lack and fall short of means), I was not a "dead weight" on (= an idle encumbrance, hence, a financial burden to) even one person, for the brothers (= fellow believers) coming from Macedonia replenished the lacks resulting from my being in need, and in everything I kept and shall continue keeping myself "weight-free" to (= free from being a burden for) you folks.


10.  Christ's reality (or: Truth pertaining to, originating in, and which is [the] Anointed One) continuously exists within me, so that this boast (or: boasting) will not be constantly fenced in or hedged about (thus: stopped or blocked) unto (or: for) me within the slopes (= regions) of Achaia!

11.  Why (Through what reason or situation)?  Because I am not continuously loving you folks?  God has seen and thus knows!

12.  So what I am habitually doing I will still continue doing, to the end that I can cut out the starting point, base of operations, and occasion of those repeatedly wanting and intending a starting point (base of operations, or, an occasion), so that they can be found within that which they are constantly boasting – even just as we!

13.  For such folks [are] false emissaries (pseudo-representatives) – fraudulent and deceitful workers – constantly changing their outward fashion and transforming themselves into emissaries of Christ (representatives of [the] Anointed One).

14.  And no wonder ([it is] no marvel or cause for astonishment), for the adversary (opponent; satan) itself is repeatedly changing its form and outward fashion (transforming itself) into a messenger of light (or, as a passive: is from time to time being transformed and changed in its outward expression into an agent from [the] Light).

15.  Therefore, [it is] no great thing if its attending servants and dispensers also repeatedly change their form and outward fashion (or: are habitually transformed) as attending servants of fairness and equity (dispensers of the way pointed out; = ministers of the covenant) whose finish (or: end in view; finished product; attained goal; consummation; accomplished end) will proceed in being in accord with, along the line of, to the level of and corresponding to their works and actions (or: = their outcome will constantly be what they reap from their deeds).


16.  I say again, no one should presume to imagine or suppose me to be a senseless fellow (a fool; one devoid of intellect; an imprudent man).  Still – if not in fact – even if as senseless (foolish; idiotic; imprudent), accept and receive me, so that I myself also can boast of something!

17.  What I am presently speaking I am speaking not down from or in accord with [the] Lord (Master; Owner; [= Christ or Yahweh]), but to the contrary, as within senselessness (foolishness; imprudence) within this assumed position as a basis for boasting:

18.  since many folks are habitually boasting – according to the flesh (or: = on the level of the natural being; or: = in the sphere of estranged humanity) I myself should also boast,

19.  for with pleasure you folks – continuously being intelligent, sensible and prudent folks! – habitually put up with the senseless (foolish; idiotic; imprudent) people!

20.  In fact, you constantly put up with anyone if he is progressively bringing you down to slavery (or: is completely enslaving you as his habit) if someone is repeatedly devouring; if someone is constantly taking [you] in hand; if someone is progressively elevating himself or lifting himself up upon [you]; if someone is continuously bringing the lash into your face (flaying you with a whip so as to remove the skin and eat into the face)!

(= you folks constantly tolerate tyranny, abusive insults, pride and arrogance, as well as being drained of resources, being manipulated and being restrained.)


21.  I am saying [this] down from dishonor (or: in accord with being devalued), seeing that we, ourselves, have been weak [among you].  Yet in whatever anyone is habitually daring – I say this in senselessness (I’m talking foolishly and unreasonably) I, too, am habitually daring!

22.  Are they Hebrews?  So [am] I!  Are they Israelites?  So [am] I!  Are they a seed of Abraham?  So [am] I!

[comment: this is the "boasting on the level of flesh" in vs. 18, above]

23.  Are they Christ's attending servants? – I am speaking as one being beside himself (or: insane) I [am] over and above [them] (or: I, more so; = I surpass [them])!  In toilsome labors and weariness more exceedingly; in prisons and jails more often; in blows (stripes or beatings) surpassingly; in deaths many times (= in near-death situations often).

24.  Five times by Jews I received forty [stripes; lashes], less one.

25.  Three times I was beaten with rods; once I was stoned; three times I was shipwrecked – I have done night and day within the midst of the depth [of the sea], even hitting bottom;

26.  on journeys often (many times); in dangers (perils) of rivers (or: floods); in dangers of robbers (perils of plunderers); in dangers from out of [my] race (kindred); in dangers from out of the multitudes of ethnic groups ([the] nations); in dangers within city; in dangers within a desolate place (wilderness); in dangers at sea; in dangers among false-brothers (= pseudo-believers; or: = Family members who lie and deal falsely);

27.  in exhaustive labor and wearisome toil; in lack of sleep (or: sleeplessness; or: vigils) often; in hunger (or: scarcity of food; or: famine) and in thirst – in situations of deprivation or need of food (or: in fastings), many times; in cold and in lack of sufficient clothing (or: nakedness);

28.  apart from these external matters (or: apart from those things [just mentioned] – besides the outside – ) [there is] the thing rushing in on me and giving cares (the pressure) from day to day: the anxiety, concern and divided distraction pertaining to all the called-out folks (or: summoned-forth communities):

29.  Who is continuing weak and I am not proceeding to be weak (= sharing their weakness)?  Who is habitually snared and caused to stumble or be entrapped, and I, myself, am not being repeatedly made fiery hot (or: caused to be incensed)?


30.  If (or: Since) it is necessary to boast, I will boast concerning the things pertaining to my weakness.

31.  The God and Father of the Lord Jesus (or, in apposition: which is [the] Lord Jesus) the One continuously being a blessed One (or: the One constantly existing being [in character and quality as] a Word of ease and a Message of wellness and goodness) on into the ages – has seen and thus knows that I am not lying.

32.  In Damascus the ethnarch (tribal governor; ruler of that culture) under Aretas, the king, had been watching with guards to garrison the city of Damascus, intending to seize and arrest me,

33.  and through a window (or: small opening) I was lowered through the wall in a braided hamper (of ropes or wicker), and escaped (fled out of) his hands.




1.  It is necessary for one to boast from time to time – though indeed not beneficial or expedient – so I will proceed in coming unto [the subject of] visions and unveilings of [the] Lord (or: = from Christ or Yahweh).

(or: [other MSS: If (or: Since) it is necessary to continue boasting, {it}; still other MSS: Now to repeatedly boast] indeed does not normally bring [people] together, so I will continue moving on to sights, apparitions and appearances, as well as revelations and disclosures, whose source and origin are [the] Lord, or, which are [the] Lord).


2.  I am acquainted with a person (or: a man; a human) in Christ (or: within the midst of Christ; in union with [the] Anointed) more than fourteen years ago – whether in body (or: in a body), I am not aware; whether outside of the body, I am not aware; God has seen and knows (is aware) being snatched away (dragged off; seized and taken) as such, as far as [the; or: a] third heaven (or: atmosphere).

3.  Further, I have seen and know such a person (man; human) whether in body or apart from the body, I know not; God knows –

4.  that was snatched away (seized and taken) into the Paradise and heard inexpressible gush-effects and utterances (unutterable sayings and results of a flow; unspeakable results of movement and flux; inexpressible matters and declarations) which are not being from out of existence (or: which are not continuing from within the midst of being; or: which it continues being not right; or: for which there is no privilege or authority; which are not being possible; which are not being allowed) in a person (to mankind; for a human) to at any point speak.

5.  I will boast over such a person, yet over myself I will not continue boasting – except in my weaknesses,

6.  for if I should ever want or intend to boast, I shall not be senseless (unintelligent; unreasonable; imprudent), for I will continue declaring reality (truth).  Yet I continue being reticent (continue refraining) and no one should account into me [anything] above (or: over) what he continues seeing [in] and observing [of] me, or hearing from me.

7.  And now, in the excess of the unveilings (or: with the transcendence of the revelations; by the extraordinary amount and surpassing nature of the disclosures), through this [situation] and for this reason – so that I could not be progressively exalted (or: would not continue being overly lifted up [in myself or by others]) something with [its] point in [my] flesh is given in me (or: an impaling-stake for the human nature was given for me; or: a thorn to the natural realm, and a splinter by alienated humanity, was assigned to me): an agent of (or: a messenger from) the adversary, to the end that he (or: it) could (or: should; would) repeatedly beat me in the face (or: slap me on the ear) with his (or: its) fist.

            [comment: this personification of the irritation may well be metaphorical and may refer to his social or cultural-religious situation]

8.  I called the Lord [Christ or Yahweh] alongside for relief, ease and comfort, and entreated [Him] three times over (or: about) this, so that he (or: it) would (or: should) at once stand away and withdraw from me,

9.  and yet He has said to me – and His declaration stands, "My grace is continuously sufficient in you (or: My joyous favor is constantly adequate to ward [it] off for you), for you see, ability (or: the [other MSS read: My] power) is habitually brought to its goal (or: finished; perfected; matured) within the midst of weakness (or: in union with lack of strength and infirmity)."  Most gladly, therefore, I will rather continue boasting within the midst of and in union with weakness, to the end that the ability of the Christ (or: the Anointed One's power) can pitch its tent (or: should tabernacle) upon me (or: = set up residence upon me during this transient life and journey; perhaps: = fulfill the type of the Feast of Tabernacles with me; or: = be my house from heaven; [cf: ch. 5:1])!

10.  Wherefore I habitually delight and take pleasure within weaknesses (or: in union with lack of strength or infirmity); in the midst of outrageous insults and ignominious situations of mistreatment; in union with pressured necessities; in the midst of pursuits for persecution and cramped situations over and on behalf of Christ, for whenever I continue being (or: may periodically be) weak, then I am powerful (or: I then exist being capable)!


11.  I have become unreasonable (senseless; imprudent; foolish) you, yourselves, compel me (press and force me; = drive me to it!) for I myself ought to have been being constantly recommended (placed together with and commended) by you folks, because not even in one thing did I come behind (or: am I deficient from or inferior to) the "very-overly" [pretentious and condescending] emissaries (or: representatives), even though I am nothing (or: since I also exist being nothing!).

12.  Indeed, the signs of the emissary (the sent-forth representative) were produced and accomplished [by me] among you folks in every [situation] of humbly remaining under to give support (or: in all patient endurance) as well as by signs and wonders (portents; marvels) and powers (or: in abilities and capabilities).

13.  So what is there in which you folks were treated as inferior, or made worse off, above (= more than) the rest of the called-out folks (or: communities), except that for myself, I myself was not a "dead weight" for (= and idle encumbrance, hence, a financial burden to) you folks?  Give grace to me for this unfairness (wrong; injustice)!


14.  Look (or: Consider)!  This third time I continue holding [myself] ready and prepared to come to (or: go toward) you folks – and I will not proceed in being "dead weight" (an encumbrance or burden), for I am not habitually seeking your "things" (your possessions), but to the contrary, you.  For the children ought not to be habitually storing up and accumulating [material resources] for the parents, but rather, the parents [should do this] for the children.

15.  So I myself most gladly shall spend (pay the expenses) even be completely spent (exhausted; bankrupted) over (on behalf of) your souls.  Even if I am constantly loving you excessively, I am habitually being loved less.  (or: And since I am continuously loving you more abundantly {or: too much}, am I being loved less?)

16.  Yet, let it continue to be.  I myself do not (or: did not) overburden or weigh you down.  Nonetheless, being inherently ready to do anything and capable for every work, [you say that] I caught you, taking you by bait (as used for fish)!

17.  Not anyone whom I have sent off to you folks [did this]!  Did I take advantage of you through him?

18.  I called Titus alongside, urged [him] and sent [him] off, together with the (or: [his]) brother (or: = fellow believer and member of the Family), as an emissary (sent-off representative).  Surely Titus did not take advantage of you!  Do we not walk about in the same Spirit (or: = Do we not live and order our lives with the same attitude)?  Not in the same footprints?


19.  All this time [other MSS: Again] do you folks continue thinking (supposing; presuming) that we are repeatedly making a verbal defense to you?  Down [here] in God's stead and place, we are constantly speaking within Christ and in union with [the] Anointing.  And the whole (all [these] things), beloved ones, [is (are)] over (on behalf of) your edification (your upbuilding; the construction of your house).

20.  So you see, I continue being afraid, lest somehow – on coming – I may not find you folks such as I habitually intend (purpose; desire) and I myself may be found by you [to be one] such as you folks continue not desiring – lest somehow [I may find] strife (contention; quarreling), jealousy, outbursts of emotions or swellings of anger, selfish ambition and factious rivalry, backbitings (down-babblings; slanderous conversations), whisperings (occasions of malicious gossiping), situations of puffing up (inflations of pride), disorders (situations of unrest; turbulences; losses of tranquility; instabilities).


21.  My God will [other MSS: may] not again be repeatedly humbling me toward you folks, at my coming, and yet I may mourn and grieve over many of those having before failed (missed the target; sinned) continuing thus – and not even once repenting or changing their views upon the uncleanness and fornication (sexual immorality; prostitution) and loose conduct (blatant licentiousness) which they practice.




1.  I am habitually coming to you folks – this third time, now!

"Upon [the] mouth of two witnesses – and of three – every effect of a flow (gush-effect; matter; declaration; saying) will continue being made to stand." [Deut. 19:15]


2.  I have said before, and I continue saying beforehand – as continuing present, the second time, and yet now continuing absent – to those having before failed (sinned), and still continuing thus – and to all the rest – that if I should ever come again into the [area], I will not continue to spare or refrain,

3.  since you continue seeking a proof of the Christ continuously speaking within and in union with me – Who [having come] into you folks is not being weak, but rather continues powerful (or: capable) within and in union with you folks.

4.  For even though He was crucified from out of weakness (or: put to death on a torture stake forth from the midst of weakness), yet in contrast He is continuously living from out of the midst of God's power and ability.  For you see, we ourselves also continuing being weak within (or: in union with) Him, but still we shall continue living together with Him from out of the midst of God's power and ability [which is also directed] into you folks.


5.  Keep on examining and making trial of yourselves, since you exist being in union with the confidence and faith (or: whether you continue being [and thus, living] within the midst of trust); repeatedly test and assay yourselves so as to approve of yourselves and come to meet the desired specifications.  Or are you not now fully aware nor presently recognizing yourselves, with accurate insight: that Jesus Christ constantly exists being within the midst of and in union with you people? – since you are surely not unable to stand the test, nor are you disapproved or disqualified! (or: – except you are somewhat disqualified.)

6.  Yet I continue expecting that you folks will progressively come to know by intimate experience that we ourselves are not unable to stand the test, nor are we disapproved or disqualified!

7.  Now we habitually hold good thoughts and have wishes of ease and wellness toward God, asking [that] you folks do nothing worthless or of bad quality – not so that we, ourselves, can appear (or: should be made to be seen) as approved or qualified, but rather so that you yourselves can (or: should; would) be habitually doing that which is beautiful (or: constantly constructing the ideal; repeatedly making what is fine), even though we ourselves may be as ones disapproved and disqualified (= should look as if we had failed the test and are discredited).

8.  For you see, we continue powerless (unable; incapable) [to do] anything against (or: [to be] putting down) reality or the Truth, but to the contrary, [we have power and ability] over reality, and for the sake of the Truth.

9.  So we are constantly rejoicing whenever we ourselves may continue being weak, yet you, yourselves, may continue being able and powerful.  We are also constantly holding this good thought, asking with wishes of ease and wellness: your complete adjustment (your thoroughly being knitted together, made completely equipped in full readiness, and adapted in perfect unity).

10.  Therefore, being absent, I am now writing these things, to the end that [when] being present I may not severely employ the rights that accord with the authority (or: harshly behave in the sphere from out of [my] existence; act in a cutting-off way along the line of what is out of Being) which the Lord [= Christ or Yahweh] gave, and gives, to and in me; [a privilege which leads] into building the house up, and not into tearing [it] down.


11.  As to the rest, brothers (= fellow believers and members – family), be habitually rejoicing (or: be progressively happy); be continuously adjusted so as to be completely equipped and fully made ready while being thoroughly knitted together into perfect unity; be repeatedly called alongside to give or be given aid, relief, comfort and encouragement; constantly mind the same thing and agree, being of the same opinion (have the same frame of mind and be mutually disposed); continuously dwell in and with peace (be at and keep peace; be in and cultivate harmony; live in [shalom]) and the God of the Love and Peace (or: the God Who is the urge toward reunion and harmony) will continue being with you folks.

12.  Greet and embrace one another within a set-apart expression of affection (or: holy and sacred kiss).

13.  All the set-apart folks (holy ones; sacred people) constantly embrace you folks and send you their best.

14.  The grace and joyous favor of, from and which is the Lord, Jesus Christ – even the love which is God (or: and the unambiguous, uniting acceptance and participation of, from and which characterizes God), and the common-existence, partnership, sharing, communion and participation which is the set-apart Breath-effect (or: of and from the Holy Spirit; or: of that sacred spirit-attitude) – [continue being] with all of you folks.  It is so (Count on it; Amen)!


[written circa A.D. 56 – Based on the critical analysis of John A.T. Robinson]

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